Phaeohyphomycoses - these are not "moles" but "molds"
Let us understand that we must look to the fungi for all the causes for the
"Charles Miller" <4amiller at bellsouth.net> wrote in message
news:BBD1B263.22FF%4amiller at bellsouth.net...
> Fruits Offer Powerful Protection From Skin Cancer
> 10/29/2003 -- Fruits contain a number of vitamins and minerals that are
> as supplements to treat everyday illnesses. Now, research suggests that
> common fruit extracts may have significant clinical benefits in decreasing
> risk for skin cancer. These studies were presented at the American
> Association for Cancer Research Second Annual International Conference on
> Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research.
>>>>> "The incidence of skin cancer is rising faster than any other solid tumor
> the United States. It is critical that we develop novel approaches to both
> primary and secondary prevention of what appears to be becoming an
> epidemic," said David Alberts, M.D., of the University of Arizona.
>>>> "We are pleased to see numerous studies exploring the therapeutic value of
> topically-applied natural ingredients that people can begin incorporating
> into everyday life and may enhance the activity of standard sunscreens."
>>>> Pomegranate Fruit Extract is a Novel Agent for Cancer Chemoprevention:
> Studies in Mouse Skin (Abstract 1547)
>>>> The search for novel anti-cancer therapies is ongoing, especially in the
> area of skin cancer, which is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in
> the United States. According to researchers from the University of
> Wisconsin, one promising agent against skin cancer may have been found in
> the extract of the pomegranate fruit.
>>>> Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE), from the tree Punica granatum, contains
> several polyphenols and anthocyanidins (pigment that gives certain fruits
> their dark red colors), the antioxidant activity of which is higher than
> that of red wine and green tea. In this study, researchers evaluated
> pomegranate's anti-skin tumor effects by comparing topical application of
> pomegranate extract on neonatal mice (CD-1) against TPA-induced markers
> (12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a strong promoter of chemically
> induced skin cancer. Applying pomegranate extract (2 mg/mouse) onto the
> of neonatal mice 30 minutes prior to TPA (3.2 µmole/mouse) application
> significantly inhibited TPA-mediated increases in skin edema and
> hyperplasia. TPA is an irritant and inflammatory agent that is widely used
> as a tumor promoter on the skin of mice.
>>>> Researchers also assessed the effect of skin application of pomegranate
> extract on TPA-induced skin tumor promotion. The animals pretreated with
> pomegranate extract showed substantially reduced tumor incidence and lower
> tumor body burden. In the TPA treated group, all mice developed tumors at
> weeks, whereas only 30 percent of the mice treated with pomegranate
> exhibited tumors at that point.
>>>> "For the first time, we have clear evidence that pomegranate extract
> possesses anti-skin-tumor-promoting effects," said Dr. Farrukh Afaq, of
> University of Wisconsin, and lead investigator of the study.
>>>> "With such a variety of pathways inhibited by the topical application of
> natural supplement, we are confident of its therapeutic value and hope it
> will translate to other models."
>>>> According to the researchers, because pomegranate is capable of inhibiting
> conventional as well as novel biomarkers of TPA-induced tumors, it may
> possess chemopreventive activity in a wide range of tumor models. To
> determine the potential value of pomegranate, researchers will pursue an
> in-depth study to define its active agent(s).
>>>> Chemoprevention of Multiple Ultraviolet B-Mediated Damages in SKH-1
> Mouse Skin by Grape Polyphenol Resveratrol: The Underlying Mechanism
> (Abstract 1489)
>>>> Knowing that the greater public will never stay far from the beach,
> researchers are constantly searching for novel approaches to manage risk
> factors for skin cancer, including damage from frequent exposure to solar
> ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UVB component. In this study,
> resveratrol, an antioxidant in grapes and red wines, was studied to
> determine its chemopreventive potential against UVB-mediated skin damage.
>>>> As frequent UVB radiation increases skin cancer risk, researchers
> the effect of topical application of resveratrol (10 µmole/mouse/0.2 ml
> acetone) on multiple UVB (seven consecutive exposures in 7 days)
> exposure-mediated damages in the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice.
>>>> Researchers evaluated resveratrol's influence on survivin, which is
> in the control of cell division, and is a structurally unique member of
> apoptosis inhibitors protein family. Survivin is overexpressed in most
> cancers, but absent in normal adult tissues, and is considered a promising
> therapeutic target for novel anticancer therapies. Results of the study
> showed that resveratrol treatment significantly decreased UVB
> exposure-mediated up-regulation in the mRNA levels and protein expression
>>>> "We're pleased to see that resveratrol is able to modulate multiple
> signaling in the cells, which actually protects the skin cells from
> that may lead to the development of cancer," said Dr. Nihal Ahmad, of the
> University of Wisconsin, and lead author of the study. "Further study
> continue to support the argument to incorporate this agent into skin care
> products and regular diets, through the moderate consumption of grapes and
> red wine."
>>>> Resveratrol significantly inhibited UVB-mediated increases in skin
> and edema; epidermal cyclooxygenase (COX-2); ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)
> enzyme and protein levels; and protein levels of proliferating cell
> antigen (PCNA), all of which are established markers of tumor promotion.
> Resveratrol also further stimulated a UVB-mediated increase in p53 protein
> levels and was found to inhibit UVB exposure-mediated increases in cell
> cycle promoting signals including the activation of cell division.
>>>> Modulation of Ultraviolet Radiation B Induced Wnt-Signaling by Perillyl
> Alcohol in Human Keratinocytes (Abstract 1385)
>>>> Perillyl alcohol (PEOH) is a food additive and a compound found naturally
> tart cherries, mint and citrus fruits, such as orange peel. Evidence has
> shown that this class can inhibit the growth of many cancers and
> pre-cancerous lesions by helping rid the body of cancer-causing chemicals
> by interfering with signals that cause rapid cell division. Researchers in
> this study determined that the compound maintains its chemopreventive
> effects against skin cancer.
>>>> "Our research has documented that perillyl alcohol is a potent in vivo
> (living cells) inhibitor of both UVB-induced non-melanoma and melanoma in
> transgenic animal model," said Janine Einspahr, Ph.D., of the Arizona
> Center in Tucson, and lead author of the study.
>>>> "We are confident that further research will garner results that support
> these findings in human models. Phase I and Phase II studies of
> topically-administered perillyl alcohol have been initiated at the Arizona
> Cancer Center," she added.
>>>> In the study, human keratinocytes (skin cells) were treated for 24 hours
> with .43 millimolars of PEOH, followed by exposure to 250 millijoules per
> cm2 of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). RNA was isolated for analysis
> immediately following UVB exposure, as well as at half, two, six and 24
> hours. As compared to untreated cells, expression of 5,533 genes was
> altered (greater than two fold) with UVB, and 5,837 genes with UVB and
>>>> Wnt-inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) and the Dvl inhibitory protein (IDAX)
> prevent activation of Wnt responsive genes. UVB alone suppressed WIF-1
> expression as much as five fold at two hours, while UVB and PEOH increased
> expression as much as two and a half fold at the six hour time point.
> Similarly, UVB alone suppressed IDAX expression as much as three fold at
> hours, while UVB and PEOH increased expression as much as nine fold
> immediately following exposure. The Wnt responsive gene, c-myc, was
> unchanged with UVB, while UVB and PEOH suppressed expression as much as
> seven fold at two hours.
>>>> The Wnt signaling pathway helps regulate cell structure, movement and
> growth. Activation of the pathway requires the ligand to bind to a
> receptor (the Wnt signal lead receptor). This stimulates the cytoplasmic
> protein, disheveled (Dvl), one of the multi-module proteins working in the
> pathway. As a result, accumulated catenins, or protein mutations, situate
> themselves in the nucleus of the cell. This translocation leads to the
> transcription of Wnt targeted genes, such as c-myc, causing cancer.
>>>> Skin cancer is the most common cancer, with more than 1.3 million new
> expected in 2003. Additionally, the American Cancer Society estimates that
> in 2003, there will be 54,200 new cases of melanoma, and about 7,600
> will die of this disease.
>>>> Source: American Association for Cancer Research