Immune Reactive Conditions: Eczema, lupus, autism and Mercury
arie_ at hotmail.com
arie_ at hotmail.com
Sun Mar 19 14:46:20 EST 2000
Subject: SCI: references for BW paper: mercury & eczema, lupus,
Immune Reactive Conditions: Eczema, lupus, autism and Mercury -
snipped from a larger study
by B. Windham
So, with thanks to B. Windham:
The incidence of allergic and immune reactive conditions such as
allergies, asthma, eczema,lupus, oral lichen planus, autism, etc. have
been increasing rapidly in recent years (1, 2, 3). The largest
increase has been in infants (1, 2, 6, 7), with an increase in autism
cases of over 250% to a level of almost 1 per 300 infants in the last
decade (2), and over 10 % of infants- approximately 15 million in the
U.S. with systemic eczema (1). Studies researching the reason for
these rapid increases in infant reactive conditions seem to implicate
earlier and higher usage of vaccines containing mercury(thimerosal) as
a possible connection (2b). Many thousands of parents have reported
that their child got such conditions after vaccination.
Thimerosal had been previously removed from similar preservative uses
in eye drops and eye medications after evidence of a connection to
chronic degenerative eye conditions. The effect on the immune system
of exposure to various toxic substances such as toxic metals and
environmental pollutants has also been found to have additive or
synergistic effects and to be a factor in increasing eczema,
allergies, asthma, and sensitivity to other lesser allergens. Other
than the toxic metals which are discussed later, three such that have
been documented are traffic and industrial pollutants nitrogen oxide,
power plant residual oil fly ash, and organochlorine pollutants (4).
Allergic contact eczema is the most frequent occupational disease (1),
and the most common cause of contact eczema is exposure to toxic
metals (1, 5-9). The metals most commonly causing allergic immune
reactivity are nickel, mercury, chromium, cobalt, and palladium (1,
5-12). The highest level of sensitization is to Infants, who are most
reactive to thimerosal, a form of mercury that has been used as a
preservative in vaccines and eye drops (6, 7). There is suggestive and
clinical evidence for a connection between toxic metals and autism
Although nickel has historically been the number one source of metal
allergy and contact allergy, with many dozens of medical studies
documenting the connection to conditions such as contact eczema, in
recent years the largest increase in infant reactivity appears to be
related to mercury exposure (6, 7, etc.). Thus in assessing mechanisms
by which these conditions are related to metals, this paper will focus
on mercury. Some of this would be similar for other metals however.
Medical studies looking for mechanisms by which mercury causes some of
these conditions found interferon syntheses was reduced in a
concentration dependent manner with either mercury or methyl mercury,
as well as other immune functions (13-15), and low doses also induce
aggregation of cell surface proteins and dramatic tyrosine
phosporlation of cellular proteins related to asthma, allergic
diseases such as eczema and lupus, and autoimmunity (14, 15). One
study found that insertion of amalgam fillings or nickel dental
materials causes a suppression of the number of T-lymphocytes (16),
and impairs the T-4/T-8 ratio. Low T4/T8 ratio has been found to be a
factor in lupus, anemia, MS, eczema, inflammatory bowel disease, and
Many studies have found that the body's basic building blocks, amino
acids with SH hydroxyl radicals form strong bonds with the toxic
metals such as mercury, resulting in compounds which the immune system
recognizes as "foreign" or non-functional in the basic digestive
enzymatic processes that use them as fuel and building blocks in cell
structure. This results in activation of the immune system, and when
there is a chronic exposure can lead to an autoimmune process that
results in significant symptoms and various autoimmune diseases and
conditions such as these systemic allergic conditions as well as
others such as chronic fatigue (CFS), multiple chemical sensitivities
(MCS), and fibromyalgia (11-16, etc.).
As previously noted, many occupational and children's studies have
found mercury to be a common cause of immune reactivity and contact
and systemic skin conditions including eczema (4-12). One of the
confusions about mercury is that there are several forms of mercury,
with different mechanisms of exposure for the different forms, as
well as different mechanisms in which the forms of mercury affect the
body and immune system. However all have been documented to be
extremely neurotoxic and immunotoxic, and to cause autoimmunity in
And many studies as well as scientific panels have documented that the
number one source of mercury in most adults is amalgam fillings(16),
also that a mother's amalgam fillings through placental transfer and
breast milk are the main source of mercury in most infants, other than
from vaccinations (16).
Many studies including patch tests and immune reactivity tests have
been carried out to assess the level of mercury sensitivity in
different populations. They have found that there is a significant
portion of the population that are reactive and sensitive to mercury
and such have significant effects. In a group of medical students
tested, 12.8 % were sensitive to mercury (17). The mercury sensitized
students were found to have more than average number of amalgam
fillings, higher urine mercury than non-sensitized students, and more
allergic reactions to other things such as cosmetics, soaps, shampoos,
etc. Many other studies have found similar levels of sensitization in
recent years, with those populations with higher
exposures such as those with many fillings or dental staff tending to
have higher levels of sensitization (11, 12, 16) and more adverse
In a group of 8 with contact eczema patch tested for mercury in Spain,
all were positive for mercurochrome, six to inorganic mercury, and
some to thimerosal (18). This study like several others noted the
danger in patch tests for mercury as 2 of the patients suffered
anaphylactic shock after the
patch test due to the extreme immune reactivity of some to mercury.
Inorganic mercury was found to be a cause of systemic eczema and
digestive problems by a Japanese study (19). There is consensus
among researchers and dental authorities that amalgam fillings is the
main cause of oral lichen planus and the condition is usually cured by
amalgam removal (86, 87, 90, 101, 168).
Many clinics and studies have found that patients with allergic
reactive conditions such as oral lichen planus, eczema, chronic
allergies etc. usually recover or have significant improvements after
amalgam replacement (11, 12, 16, 20, etc.). Of a group of 86 patients
with CFS symptoms, 78% reported significant health improvements after
replacement of amalgam fillings within a relatively short period, and
MELISA test found significant reduction in lymphocyte reactivity
compared to pre removal tests (342, 368).
The improvement in symptoms and lymphocyte reactivity imply that most
of the Hg-induced lymphocyte reactivity is allergenic in nature.
Patients with other systemic neurological or immune symptoms such as
arthritis, myalgia, CFS, MCS, MS, etc. also often recover after
Cases of documented clinical cases with recovery after amalgam
replacement include: eczema (60, 212, 222, 271, 313, 317, 323, 94,
376, 341), oral lichen planus (86, 87, 90, 101, 168), allergies (26,
40, 46, 94, 95, 165, 212, 222, 228, 229, 233, 271, 317, 322, 349,
376), asthma (75, 222, 228, 271, 322), chronic multiple chemical
sensitivities (26, 95, 222, 229, 232, 233, 35, 115, 313, 320, 368),
lupus (12, 113, 222, 229, 233), arthritis (95, 103, 212, 222, 271,
313, 322, 358), MS (94, 95, 102, 170, 212, 222, 271, 291, 302, 34, 35,
229), muscular/joint pain/fibromyalgia (222, 293, 317, 322, 369, 94).
Any references not found in this paper can be found in the bigger
paper (16), from which most of this paper is excerpted and which
contains clinical documentation of over 60,000 cases of recoveries
after amalgam replacement.
(1) American Academy of Dermatology, Press Release, February, 2000
(2) California Health and Human Services Agency, Dept. Of
Developmental Services, April 16, 1999; & (b) "Advocacy Groups Call
for Research to Investigate Link Between Autism Increase and
Vaccination", April 16,1999: Autism Research Institute, Cure Autism
Now, AutismAutoimmunity Project, and National Vaccine Information
Center; & Gary Null, Second Opinion: Vaccinations, Gary Null and
(3) Silhan P, Arenberger P. Standard epicutaneous tests in ambulatory
care of patients. Cas Lek Cesk 1999, 138(15):469-73.
(4) Reichrtova E et al, "Cord Serum Immunoglobulin E Related to
Enviornmental Contamination of Human Placentas with Oganochlorine
Compounds", Envir Health Perspec, 1999, 107(11):895-99; & Gavett SH et
al. Residual Oil Fly Sah Amplifies Allergic Cytokines, Airway
Responsiveness, and Inflamtion in Mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med,
1999, 160(6):1897-1904; & Kramer U et al, Traffic- related air
pollution is associated with atopy in children living in urban areas.
Epidemiology 2000, 11(1): 64-70.
(5) Romaguera C, Vilaplana J. Contact dermatitis in children: 6 years
experience. Contact Dermatitis 1998; 39(6): 277-80.
(6) Brasch J, Geier J, Schnuch A. Differentiiated contact allergy
lists serve in quality improvement. Hautarzt 1998; 49(3): 184-91.
(7) Manzini BM, Ferdani G, Simonetti V, Donini M, Sedernari S.
Contact senstization in children. Pediatr Dermatol 1998; 15(1):
(8) Sun CC. Allergic contact dermatitis of the face from contact with
nickel and ammoniated mercury. Contact Dermatitis 1987, 17(5):306-9.
(9) Xue C, He Z, Zhang H, Li S. Study on the contact allergen in
patients with dermatitis and eczema. Wei Sheng Yen Chiu 1997, 26(5):
(10) Aberer W, Holub H, Strohal R, Slavicek R. Palladium in dental
alloys-the dermatologists responsibility to warn? Contact Dermatitis
1993. 28(3): 163-5.
(11) V.D.M.Stejskal, Dept. Of Clinical Chemistry, Karolinska
Institute, Stockholm, Sweden LYMPHOCYTE IMMUNO-STIMULATION ASSAY
-MELISA" & VDM Stejskal et al, "MELISA: tool for the study of metal
allergy", Toxicology in Vitro, 8(5):991-1000, 1994. For full study
(12) Sterzl I, Prochazkova J, Stejaskal VDM et al, Mercury and nickel
allergy: risk facotrs in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinology
Letters 1999; 20:221-228.
(13) S.Ellermann-Eriksen et al, "Effect of mercuric chloride on
macrophage-mediated resistance mechinisms against infection",
Toxicology, 93:269-297,1994; & M.Kubicka-Muranyi et al, "Systemic
induced by mercuric chloride", Int Arch Allergy Immunol;1996,
& M.M.Christensen et al, Institute o Medical Microbiology,
"Comparision of interaction of meHgCl2 and HgCl2 with murine
macrophages", Arch Toxicol, 1993, 67(3):205-11;
(14) P.W. Mathieson, "Mercury: god of TH2 cells",1995, Cliical Exp
Immunol.,102(2):229-30; Parronchi P, Brugnolo F, Sampognaro S, Maggi
E. Genetic and Environmental Factors Contributing to the Onset of
Disorders. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000 Jan;121(1):2-9.
(15) L.M. Bagentose et al, "Mercury induced autoimmunity in humans",
Immunol Res, 1999,20(1): 67-78; &"Mercury-induced autoimmunity", Clin
Exp Immunol, 1998, 114(1):9-12; B.J. Shenker et al, Dept. Of
Pathology,Univ. Of Penn. School of Dental Med.,"Immunotoxic effects of
mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes: Alterations in
cell viability" and "Immune suppression of human T-cell activation",
Immunopharmacologicol Immunotoxical, 1992, 14(3):555-77.
(16) Windham, B. Annotated Bibliography: Adverse health effects
related to mercury and amalgam fillings and clinically documented
recoveries after amalgam replacement. (over 600 references);
berniew1 at earthlink.net
(17) Sato K, Kusaka Y, Miyakoshi S. An epideomological study of
factors relating to mercury sensitization.
Arerugi 1995; 44(2):86-92.
(18) Galindo PA, Feo F, Fernadez F. Mercurochrome allergy: immediate
and delayed hypersensity. Allergy 1997; 52(11): 1138-41.
(19) Koizumi A et al, Mercury poisoning as cause of smelter disease.
Lancet 1994; 343(8910): 1411-2.
(20) Ulukapi I. Mercury hypersensitivity from amalgam: report of
case. ASDC J Dent Child 1995; 62(5):363-4.
(21) Wecker L, Miller SB, Cochran SR, Dugger DL, Johnson WD. Trace
element concentrations in hair from autistic children. Defic Res 1985;
29(Pt 1): 15-22.
(86) E.R.Smart et al, "Resolution of lichen planus following removal
of amalgam restorations", Br Dent J 178(3):108-112,1995(12 cases);
& H.Markow," Regression from orticaria following dental filling
removal:New York State J Med, 1943: 1648-1652;
& G. Sasaki et al, "Three cases of oral lichenosis caused by metallic
fillings", J. Dermatol, 23 Dec, 1996; 12:890-892; & J.Bratel et al,
"Effect of Replacement of Dental Amalgam on OLR", Journal of
Dentistry, 1996, 24(1-2):41-45(161 cases).
(87) A. Skoglund, Scand J Dent Res 102(4): 216-222, 1994; and
99(4):320-9,1991(40 cases); & P.O.Ostman et al, "Clinical & histologic
changes after removal of amalgma", Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and
Endodontics, 1996, 81(4):459-465;
& S.H.Ibbotson et al, "The relevance of amalgam replacement on oral
lichenoid reactions", British Journal of
Dermatology, 134(3):420-3, 1996; (270 cases)
(90) P.Koch et al, "Oral lesions and symptoms related to metals",
Dermatol, 1999,41(3):422-430; & "Oral lichenoid lesions,mercury
hypersensitity, ...", Contact Dermatitis, 1995, 33(5): 323-328;
& S.Freeman et al, "Oral lichenoid lesions caused by allergy to
mercury in amalgam", Contact Dermatitis, 33(6):423-7, Dec 1995
& H.Mobacken et al, Contact Dermatitis, 10:11-15,1984;
& M.Jolly et al, "Amalgam related chronic ulceration of oral mucosa",
Br Dent J, 1986,160: 434-437; & C.Camisa et al, "Contact
hypersensitivity to mercury", Cutis, 1999, 63(3):189-
(94) F.Berglund, Case reports spanning 150 years on the adverse
effects of dental amalgam, Bio-Probe, Inc., Orlando, Fl,1995;ISBN
(168) J.Laine et al, "Immunocompetent cells in amalgam-associated oral
licheinoid contact lesions", Oral Pathol Med 1999; 28(3): 117-21;
& "Contact allergy to dental restorative materials in patients with
oral lichenoid lesions", Contact Dermatitis, 1997,36:3,141-6;
& "Resolution of OLL after replacement of amalgam restorations", Br J
Dermatol, 1992,126(1):10-15(20 casess); & A.Adachi et al, "Efficacy
of dental metal elimination in the management of atopic dermatitis",
J Dermatology, 1997, 24:1,141-6;
(212) Ziff, M.F., "Documented Clinical Side Effects to Dental
Amalgams", ADV. Dent. Res.,1992; 1(6):131-134;
& S.Ziff, Dentistry without Mercury, 8th Edition, 1996, Bio-Probe,
Inc., ISBN 0-941011-04-6;
& Dental Mercury Detox, Bio-Probe, Inc. http://www.bioprobe.com.
(cases:FDA Patient Adverse Reaction Reports-762, Dr.M.Hanson-Swedish
patients-519, Dr. H. Lichtenberg-100 Danish patients,Dr. P.Larose- 80
Canadian patients, Dr. R.Siblerud, 86 Colorado patients,Dr. A.V.Zamm,
(222) Daunderer M, Handbuch der Amalgamvergiftung, Ecomed Verlag,
Landsberg 1998, ISBN 3-609-71750-5 (in German);
& "Improvement of Nerve and Immunological Damages after Amalgam
Removal", Amer. J. Of Probiotic Dentistry and Medicine, Jan 1991;
& Toxicologische erfahrungen am menchen; Quecksilber in der
umwelf-hearing zum amalgamproblem", Niedersachsisches
& "Amalgam", Ecomed-Verlag, Landsberg, 1995; & "Amalgamtest", Forum
Prakt.Allgen.Arzt, 1990, 29(8): 213-4;
& "Besserung von Nerven- und Immunschaden nach
Amalgamsanierung",Dtsch.Aschr. F. Biologische Zahnmedzin, 1990,
6(4):152-7. ( amalgam removal & DMPS,over 3,000 cases)
(270) D.W.Eggleston, "Effect of dental amalgam and nickel alloys on
T-lympocytes",J Prosthet Dent. 51(5):617-623,1984; & D.W.Eggleston et
al, J Prosthet Dent, 1987,58(6),704-7;
& J of the American Medical Assoc., Sept 96.
(271) B.A.Weber, "The Marburg Amalgam Study", Arzt und Umwelt, Apr,
1995; (266 cases)
& (b) B.A. Weber, "Amalgam and Allergy", Institute for Naturopathic
& © B.A. Weber, "Conuctivitis sicca(dry eye study)",Institute for
Naturopathic Medicine, 1994;
& B.A.Weber, "Alternative treatment of Multiple Schlerosis, Tumor, or
Cancer", Institute for Naturopathic Medicine 1997 (40 MS cases),
(313) V.D.M.Stejskal et al, "Mercury-specific Lymphocytes: an
indication of mercury allergy in man", J. Of Clinical Immunology,
1996, Vol 16(1);31-40. See http://www.melisa.org
(317) S.Zinecker, "Amalgam: Quecksilberdamfe bis ins Gehirn", der
Kassenarzt, 1992, 32(4):23; "Praxiproblem Amalgam", Der
Allgermeinarzt, 1995,17(11):1215-1221. (1800 patients)
(323) Dr. Kohdera, Faculty of Dentistry, Osaka Univ, Internationsl
Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, EAACI, Stockholm,
& Heavy Metal Bulletin, Vol 1, Issue 2, Oct 1994. (160 cases
& P.Dallmann,"kon nen durch Quecksilber entstehen? PeDa_Eigenverisg,
& G. Ionescu, Biol Med, 1996, (2): 65-68; SS Tsyganok, "Unithiol in
treatment of dermatoses", Vestn. Dermatol. Venerol., 1978, (9): 67-69.
(341) A.Tosti et al, "Contact stomatitis", Semin Cutan Med Surg, 1997,
& T.Nakada et al, "Patch test materials for mercury allergic contact
dematitis", Dermatitis, 1997, 36(5):237-9.
(342) V.Stejskal, "MELISA: A New Technology for Diagnosing and
Monitoring of Metal Sensitivity", Proceedings: 33rd Annual Meeting of
American Acadamy of Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Baltimore,
(368) Stejskal VDM, Danersund A, Lindvall A, Hudecek R, Nordman V,
Yaqob A et al. Metal- specific memory lymphoctes: biomarkers of
sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 1999.
(369) Sterzl I, Prochazkova J, Stejaskal VDM et al, Mercury and nickel
allergy: risk facotrs in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinology
Letters 1999; 20:221-228.
(376)Melchart D, Wuhr E, Weidenhammer W, Kremers L. A multicenter
survey of amalgam fillings and subjective complaints in non-selected
patients in the dental practice. Eur J Oral Sci 1998; 106:770-77
(6,744 patients in 34 clinics)
More information about the Toxicol
Send comments to us at biosci-help [At] net.bio.net