"Gains in Understanding Human Cells", By NICHOLAS WADE
In the end, what folks'll find is that everything is 'just' a 'thermodynamic' in which enzymes have a dual synergy. The DNA instructions [actions; protein-engineering-'steps'] take forms with respect to which all protein-development 'steps' are energy-down-hill [tapered down an energy gradient], and the enzymes are energy-down-hill with respect to specific protein-folding 'steps'.
This dual synergy is required, in order to construct proteins that have relatively-high energy-of-formation requirements. The always-thermodynamically-down-hill-ness is, in fact, the one thing that 'maps' protein-conformation sequences.
The various enzymes, themselves are 'just' 3-D energy-distributions which simultaneously 'bind' to the forming protein-to-be, solely be-cause of the energy-down-hil enzyme-protein-to-be synergy, and impose upon it an energy 'state' that, together with the protein-to-be's 'instantaneous' energy 'state', forms a down-hill energy gradient that directs the conformation of the protein-to-be to its next, intermediate, folding 'goal'.
When this intermediate 'goal' is achieved, the down-hill-energy-gradient is eliminated because the protein-to-be's 'instantaneous' conformation continues past the enzyme's engineered-in energy-gradient because, further, given the enzyme-induced conformation, the forming protein interacts with itself, in an energy-down-hill way that is simultaneously an energy-up-hill gradient with respect to the enzyme.
This is all folks'll ever find, albeit, in forms described in the exotic 'language'-interface of Biology.
Overall, this stuff is 'exactly' [use your imagination :-] analogous to the way work is extracted as water flows always-down-hill through a grist-mill mechanism, but, nevertheless, enables the doing of work that's greater than the quantity of energy in the water's down-hill-flowing-ness at any 'instant'.
Thus, the overall process yields net work while all of its steps are going-down-hill with respect to instantaneous energy-flow.
Why am I so certain?
Tapered Harmony demonstrates that all of physical reality, all the way from 'the infinitely-small' to 'the infinitely-large', and including [of course] nervous systems, works the same way, so-called 'quantum weirdness' not withstandig, all of physical reality is 'just' one huge down-hill-energy-flow, except for the cosmological-scale cycling that occurs on the scale of "the universe" as a whole, and within which the directionality of WDB2T 'flips'.
All of this has been previously discussed, in sufficient detail, online.
There exist no so-called 'endothermic' dynamics. All such dynamics have just been described in artificially-delimited ways that 'ignore' external energy-inputs. Like the so-called 'free' energy-flow within 'superconducting' circuits, descriptions of which 'ignore' the energy-costs of the required 'super-cooling'.
I can carry all of this through any Physics experiment that I know of.
Challenges, from any perspective, are welcome.
K. P. Collins
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