""Medical and social science researchers have developed conflicting views of
testosterone," says Dr. Alan Booth, professor of sociology and human
development. "Medical studies indicate that testosterone has a positive
impact on mood, thereby lowering the odds of clinical depression. But at the
same time, social science research finds testosterone to be related to
criminality, drug use, heavy drinking and smoking, propensity toward
physical confrontation, sexual promiscuousness, unemployment or
underemployment and being unmarried -- all factors clearly linked to
"Our analysis reveals that higher testosterone reduces the chances of
depression among those with below average testosterone, but raises the
chances of depression among those with above average testosterone,
especially when those same men do not enjoy the stabilizing benefits of
marriage and full-time employment or engage in anti-social or risk
behavior," Booth adds.
Booth; Dr. Douglas A. Granger, assistant professor of biobehavioral health
and director of Penn State's Behavioral Endocrinology Laboratory in the
College of Health and Human Development; and Dr. David R. Johnson, professor
of sociology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, have published their
findings, "Testosterone and Men's Depression: The Role of Social Behavior,"
in the Journal Of Health And Social Behavior"