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Interactions between simple cells -- summary

tim pattison timpatt at augean.eleceng.adelaide.edu.AU
Mon Oct 7 05:10:51 EST 1991


My thanks to the following people for their replies regarding the question of lateral interactions between simple cells in V1:

David Ferster
Northwestern University
ferster at nwu.edu
Phone: (708) 491-4137   FAX: (708) 491-5211

David Blackman
blackman at hodgkin.med.upenn.edu

Judd Jones

Craig Renfrew
craig at computer-science.strathclyde.ac.uk

Attila Gulyas
h2447gul at ella.hu

The following references were recommended:

Ferster D  (1987)  The origin of orientation selective EPSPs in simple
cells of cat visual cortex. J. Neurosci.  7:1780-1791.

Ferster D  (1988)  Spatially opponent excitation and inhibition in simple
cells of the cat visual cortex. J. Neuroscience 8:1172-1180.

There is also ample evidence for the projection of layer 6
corticogeniculate cells, many of which are simple, to layer 4:

Ferster D and Lindstrom S  (1985)  Synaptic excitation of neurones in area
17 of the cat by intracortical axon collaterals of cortico-geniculate
cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 367:233-252.

McGuire BA, Hornung J-P, Gilbert CD and Wiesel TN  (1984)  Patterns of
synaptic input to layer 4 of the cat striate cortex. J. Neuroscience

Two good review papers:

AU  Martin, KAC
TI  From single cells to simple circuits in the cerebral cortex
SO  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 73:637-702 1988
FO  Martin KAC

AU  Fester D; Koch C;
TI  Neuronal connections underlying orientation selectivity in
    cat visual cortex
SO  TINS 10(12):487-492  1987
FO  Koch C

Use of dual stimuli (conditioning and mask) to try to determine
intracortical interactions:

AU  Bonds AB
TI  Role of inhibition in the specification of orientation selectivity
    of cells in the cat striate cortex
SO  Visual Neuroscience 2:41-55   1989
FO  Bonds AB

Complex cells feedback to inhibit simple cells:

AU  Morrone MC; Burr DC; Maffei L;
TI  Functional implications of cross-orientation inhibition of cortical
    visual cells. I. Neurophysiological evidence
SO  Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 216:335-354 1982
FO  Morrone MC

Long range excitatory connections by cross-correlation:

AU  Ts'o DY; Gilbert CD; Wiesel TN
TI  Relationships between horizontal interactions and functional architecture
    in cat striate cortex as revealed by cross-correlation analysis
SO  J. Neuroscience 6(4):1160-1170  1986
FO  Wiesel TN

Inhibition between "eon/eoff" cells and simple cells,
simple and complex cells:

AU  Toyama K; Kimura M; Tanaka K;
TI  Organization of cat visual cortex as investigated by
    cross-correlation technique
SO  J. Neurophysiol. 46(2):202-214  1981
FO  Toyama K
AB  Intracortical inhibition between: eon/eoff->simple cell,
    simple->complex, eon/eoff->complex eon/eoff->eon/eoff

Also, Koch has done several detailed computer simulations of the visual
cortex which include simple cell-simple cell inhibition:

AU  Worgotter F; Koch C; 
TI  A detailed model of the primary visual
pathway in the cat:
    comparison of afferent excitatory and intracortical inhibitory
    connection schemes for orientation selectivity SO  J. Neuroscience
11(7):1959-1979  1991 FO  Koch C

AU  Worgotter F; Niebur E; Koch C;
TI  Isotropic connections generate functional assymetric behavior in
    visual cortical cells
SO  J. Neurophysiol. 66(2):444-459  1991
FO  Koch 

AU  Hata Y; Tsumoto T; Sato H; Tamura H;
TI  Horizontal interactions between visual cortical neurones studied
    by cross-correlation analysis in the cat
SO  J. Physiol. 441: 593-614  1991
FO  Tsumoto T

AU  Douglas, RJ; Martin, KAC; Whitteridge D;
TI  An intracellular analysis of the visual responses of neurones in cat
    visual cortex
SO  J. Physiol. 440:659-696   1991
FO  Martin KAC

AU  Berman NJ; Douglas RJ; Martin KAC; Whitteridge D;
TI  Mechanisms of inhibition in cat visual cortex
SO  J. Physiol. 440:697-722   1991
FO  Martin KAC

AU  Dehay, C; Douglas RJ; Martin KAC; Nelson C;
TI  Excitation by geniculocortical synapses is not "vetoed" at the level of
    dendritic spines in cat visual cortex
SO  J. Physiol. 440:723-734   1991
FO  Martin KAC

AU  Douglas, RJ; Martin, KAC;
TI  A functional microcircuit for cat visual cortex
SO  J. Physiol. 440:735-769   1991
FO  Martin KAC

[1] L.A. Palmer, J.P. Jones, R.A. Stepnoski (1991) "Striate receptive fields
as linear filters: Characterization in two dimensions of space."
In: The Neural Basis of Visual Function, Vol. 4, A.G. Levanthal, ed.
Macmillan Press, London, pp. 246-265.

>The last two sections of this article may be of interest to you.

>In addition to the articles you mentioned, there is

[2] M.C. Morrone, D.C. Burr, L. Maffei (1982) "Functional significance of
cross-orientational inhibition, Part I." Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (216)

@ARTICLE { Hata ,
	AUTHOR = "Y. Hata and T. Tsumoto and H. Hagihara and H. Tamura" ,
	JOURNAL = "Nature" ,
	MONTH = "October" ,
	PAGES = "815-817" ,
	TITLE = "Inhibition contributes to orientation selectivity in visual cor tex" ,
	VOLUME = "335" ,
	YEAR = "1988"

> Hata et al show that some sort of lateral inhition
> takes place between orientation selective cells over
> short distances (< 200-400 um, I think).


David Blackman pointed out the following error:

>Finally, you said:

>>        title="A Comparison of Inhibition in Orientation and Spatial Frequency
>>        Selectivity of Cat Visual Cortex",
>>        author="Ramoa, A.S. and Shadlen, M. and Skottun, B.C. and Freeman,
>>        R.D.",
>>        journal="Nature",
>>        volume=321,
>>        pages="237-239",
>>        year=1986}
>>Note: Ramoa et al. used cross-correlation of recordings from
>>orientation-selective cells in layer IV, but did not positively identify the
>>cells as simple cells.

>This paper is the one where they jacked up a cell's spontaneous
>activity using excitatory amino acids and showed there is a strong
>inhibitory input to simple cells for stimuli != the cell's preferred
>orientation.  Surprisingly, they found no inhibition due to spatial
>frequency mismatch.  I think the cross correlation paper you are
>thinking of is:

>AU  Hata Y; Tsumoto T; Sato H; Hagihara K; Tamura H;
>TI  Inhibition contributes to orientation selectivity in visual cortex of cat
>SO  Nature 335:815-817 1988
>FO  Tsumoto T
>AB  Evidence for cross orientation inhibition using cross correlation
>    technique.  Inhibition occured between cells of 22-45 degrees but
>    not greater.

Thanks David.


People identified (dobbed in!) as being possibly able give further 
assistance on this topic include:

Larry Palmer (lap at vision3.anatomy.upenn.edu)
Judy Palmer (jmp at vision3.anatomy.upenn.edu)
Zoltan F. Kisvarday
    Dept.Neurophysiology, Ruhr University, Bochum,
    POB 10 21 48,
    D-4630, Bochum

The following additional comment may be of interest to someone approaching the topic from a different perspective from mine:

>Just my two cents:  those studies always talk about how the
>correlations exist, but if it's a system of coupled non-linear oscillators,
>then one has to ask the question: why are they not always in-phase?
>In other words, why does the coherent mode break up after a while?
>One possibility is that the system is at a critical state (edge of
>chaos), and the mode lockings are really just intermittent - the
>system is near a tangent bifurcation..

>Tom Holroyd
>Center for Complex Systems
>Florida Atlantic University
>tomh at bambi.ccs.fau.edu

There were some strings attached to the supply of this information. Perhaps someone who benefits from the above list of references can help me repay the generosity of the contributors.

(1) For craig at computer-science.strathclyde.ac.uk

>I reckon that lateral connections in the visual
>cortex (area V1) are unlikely to occur over distances
>greater than 0.5mm.   If you have any evidence or references that
>supports or refutes this statement ple

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