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REQUEST: Literature on Isolated Brain Perfusion Experiments

A J Annala annala at neuro.usc.edu
Thu Apr 4 02:52:03 EST 1991

I am writing a review paper describing the history (through the present
day) of experiments designed to provide artificial support for maintaining
normal brain activity following total circulatory or respiratory collapse.
The ultimate goal of such research is to preserve normal brain function
across lengthly periods (weeks/months) of cardiac or respiratory arrest.

There is a very substantial scientific literature (a brief chronology of
which is provided below) describing an increasingly successfull series of
experiments where animal brains have been supported by artificial methods
after complete circulatory and respiratory failure. 

If you are aware of any additional literature which should be included in
this review or if you have comments regarding the appropriateness of this
technology for current laboratory / distant future human clinical therapy
please reply with an email note to annala at neuro.usc.edu.


1812 -- Legallois put forth the original idea for resuscitating decapitated
        heads through the use of blood transfusion.

1836 -- Cooper showed in rabbits that compression of the carotid and vertebral
        arteries leads to death of an animal; such deaths can be prevented if
        the circulation of oxygenated blood to the brain is rapidly restored.

1857 -- Brown-Sequard decapitated a dog, waited ten minutes, attached four
        rubber tubes to the arterial trunks of the head, and injected blood
        containing oxygen by means of a syringe.  Two or three minutes later
        voluntary movements of the eyes and muscles of the muzzle resumed.
        After cessation of oxygenated blood transfusion movements stopped.

1887 -- Laborde made what appears to be first recorded attempt to revive the 
        heads of executed criminals by connecting the carotid artery of the 
        severed human head to the carotid artery of a large dog.  According 
        to Laborde's account, in isolated experiments a partial restoration 
        of brain function was attained.  

1912 -- Heymans maintained life in an isolated dog's head by connecting the
        carotid artery and jugular vein of the severed head to the carotid
        artery and jugular vein of another dog.  Partial functioning in the 
        severed head was maintained for a few hours.

1928 -- Bryukhonenko and Cechulin showed life could be maintained in the
        severed head of a dog by connecting the carotid artery and jugular
        vein to an artificial circulation machine.


Chute-AL, Smyth-DH.  Metabolism of the isolated perfused cat's brain.  Quart
 J Exp Physiol 29:379-394 (1939).

Geiger-A, Magnes-J.  The isolation of the cerebral circulation and the
 perfusion of the brain in the living cat.  Am J Physiol 149:517-536 (1947).

*Geiger-A.  Correlation of brain metabolism and function by use of a brain
 perfusion method in situ.  Physiol Rev 38:1-20 (1958).

Geiger-A.  Technique of brain perfusion in situ.  Methods Med Res 9:248-254

Demikhov-VP.  Transplantation of the Head.  "Experimental Transplantation of
 Vital Organs".  Consultants Bureau, New York (1962).

*Meder-R, Massopust-LC-Jr, White-RJ, Verdura-J, Albin-MS.  Isolated brain
 perfusion--electromechanical system requirements.  Proc 16th Ann Conf Eng
 Med Biol 5:28-29 (1963).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Verdura-J.  Isolation of the monkey brain: in vitro
 preparation and maintenance.  Science 141:1060 (1963).

*Gilboe-DD, Cotanch-WW, Glover--MB.  Extracorporeal perfusion of the isolated
 head of a dog.  Nature 202:399-400 (1964).

Sano-K, Terao-H, Hayakawa-I, Kamano-S, Saito-I.  Experimental transplantation
 of the head:  two-headed dogs.  Neurol Medicochir (Tokoyo) 6:35-38 (1964).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Verdura-J.  Preservation of viability in the isolated
 monkey brain utilizing a mechanical extracorporeal circulation.  Nature
 (Lond) 202:1082-1083 (1964).

*Gilboe-DD, Cotanch-WW, Glover-MB.  Isolation and mechanical maintenance of
 the dog brain.  Nature (Lond.) 206:94-96 (1965).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Locke-GE, Davidson-E.  Brain transplantation: prolonged
 survival of brain after carotid-jugular interposition. Science 150:779 (1965).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Locke-GE, Davidson-E.  Transplantation of the isolated 
 canine brain.  Physiologist 8:304 (1965).

Suda-I, Kito-K, Adachi-C.  Viability of long term frozen cat brain in vitro.
 Nature 212:268 (1966).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Locke-GE.  Vascular preparation of the isolated canine
 brain.  Anatomical Record 154:441 (1966).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Locke-GE.  Whole brain preservation near 0 degrees C.
 Cryobiology 2:315 (1966).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Verdura-J, Locke-GE.  Prolonged whole brain refrigeration
 with electrical and metabolic recovery.  Nature 209:1320 (1966).

*Allweis-C, Abeles-M, Magnes-J.  Perfusion of cat brain with simplified blood
 after filtration through glass wool.  Amer J Physiol 213:83-86 (1967).

Andjus-RK, Suhara-S, Sloviter-HA.  An isolated, perfused rat brain preparation,
 its spontaneous and stimulated activity.  J Appl Physiol 22:1033-1039 (1967).

*Sloviter-HA, Kamimoto-T.  Erythrocyte substitute for perfusion of brain.
 Nature (lond) 216:458-460 (1967).

Taslitz-N, Acosta-Rua-G, White-RJ, Albin-MS.  The rat brain as an isolated
 organ preparation.  Anat Rec 157:332 (1967).

White-RJ, Albin-MS, Verdura-J, Locke-GE.  The isolated monkey brain:  operative
 preparation and design of support systems.  J Neurosurg 27:216-225 (1967).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Locke-GE, Davidson-E.  Preparation and metabolic 
 performance of the transplanted brain.  Surgical Forum 18:463 (1967).

White-RJ, Albin-S, Yashon-D, Austin-J, Austin-P, Taslitz-N.  Mechanical
 circulatory support of the failing brain.  Trans Amer Soc Artif Int Organ
 14:349-351 (1968).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS.  Mechanical circulatory support of the isolated brain.
 "Organ perfusion and preservation." (Norman-JC, Folkman-J, Hardison-WG,
 Rudolf-LE, Veith-FJ eds).  Appleton-Century Crofts, NY.  (1968).

White-RJ.  "Experimental transplantation of the brain."  Human Transplantation
 (Rapaport-FT, Dausset-J eds).  pp 692-709 (1968).

Thompson-AM, Robertson-RC, Bauer-TA.  A rat head-perfusion technique developed
 for the study of brain uptake of materials.  J Appl Physiol 24:407-411 (1968).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Yashon-D.  Neuropathological investigation of the
 transplanted canine brain.  Transplant Proceed 1:259 (1969).

*Clark-LC, Kaplan-S, Becattini-F, Benzing-G.  Perfusion of whole animals with
 perfluorinated liquid emulsions using the Clark bubble-defoam heart-lung
 machine.  Fed Proc Am Soc Exp Biol 29:1764-1770 (1970).

Taslitz-N, White-RJ, Wolin-LR, Yashon-D.  Adequacy of single carotid
 perfusion of the brain.  Anatomical Record 166:388 (1970).

*White-RJ, Albin-MS, Yashon-D, Verdura-J, Austin-JC, Austin-PE-Jr, Demian-YK.
 Autoregulation in the isolated brain during profound hypothermia and 
 hypercarbia. Brain and Blood Flow (Ross-RW ed). Pitman, London. pp.209 (1970).

Horst-WD, Jester-J.  The use of isolated perfused rat brain in a study of
 14-C-L-Dopa metabolism.  Life Sci 10(I):685-689 (1971).

*Jahnchen-E, Krieglstein-J.  Die aufnahme von promazin, chlorpromazin und
 deren desmethylmetaboliten in das isoliert perfundierte rattenhirn.  Naunyn-
 Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmak 268:300-309 (1971).

Mukherji-B, Turinsky-J, Sloviter-HA.  Effects of perfusion without glucose
 on amino acids and glycogen of isolated rat brain.  J Neurochem 18:1783-1785

Sloviter-HA, Yamada-H.  Absence of direct action of insulin on metabolism
 of the isolated perfused rat brain.  J Neurochem 18:1269-1274 (1971).

White-RJ, Wolin-LR, Massopust-LC, Taslitz-N, Verdura-J.  Primate cephalic
 transplantation: neurogenic separation, vascular association.  Transplantation
 Proceedings 3:602-604 (1971).

Vasan-NS, Abraham-J, Bachhawat-BK.  Sulphate metabolism in acute EAE rats
 using isolated brain perfusion technique.  J Neurochem 18:59-66 (1971).

*Zimmer-R, Lang-R, Oberdoister-G.  Post-ischaemic reactive hyperaemia of the 
 isolated perfused brain of dog.  Pflugers Arch Ges Physiol 328:332-343 (1971).

Fleck-WV, Krieglstein-J, Urban-W.  Zwei apparaturen zur perfusion des 
 isolierten rattenhirns.  Arzneim-Forsch 22:1225-1230 (1972).

Ghosh-AK, Mukherji-B, Slovitar-HA.  Metabolism of isolated rat brain perfused
 with glucose or mannose as substrate.  J Neurochem 19:1279-1285 (1972).

Krieglstein-G, Krieglstein-J, Stock-R.  Suitability of the isolated perfused
 rat brain for studying effects on cerebral metabolism.  Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's
 Arch Pharmacol 275:124-134 (1972).

Krieglstein-G, Krieglstein-J, Urban-W.  Long survival time of an isolated
 perfused rat brain (Short Communication).  J Neurochem 19:885-886 (1972).

Stock-R, Krieglstein-G, Krieglstein-J.  Studies on energy metabolism of an
 isolated perfused rat brain.  Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 274:R112 

Zivin-JA, Snarr-JF.  A stable preparation for rat brain perfusion: effect of
 flow rate on glucose uptake.  J Appl Physiol 32:658-663 (1972).

Zivin-JA, Snarr-JF.  Glucose and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate uptake by isolated
 perfused rat brain.  J Appl Physiol 32:664-668 (1972).

Fleck-W, Krieglstein-J, Reichmann-M.  A two-circuit apparatus for the
 perfusion of the isolated rat brain.  Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol
 278:319-322 (1973).

Gruner-J, Krieglstein-J, Rieger-H.  Comparison of the effects of chloral
 hydrate and trichloroethanol on the EEG of the isolated perfused rat brain.
 Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 277:333-348 (1973).

Krieglstein-J, Stock-R.  Comparative study of the effects of chloral hydrate 
 and trichloroethanol on cerebral metabolism.  Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch
 Pharmacol 277:323-332 (1973).

Krieglstein-J, Stock-R, Rieger-H.  Influence of therapeutic and toxic doses of
 neuroleptics and antidepressants on energy metabolism of the isolated perfused
 rat brain.  Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 279:243-254 (1973).

Krieglstein-J, Stock-R.  The isolated perfused rat brain as a model for
 studying drugs acting on the CNS.  Psychopharmacologia 35:169-177 (1974).

White-RJ.  Hypothermic preservation and transplantation of brain.  
 Resuscitation 4:197 (1975).

Woods-HF, Graham-CW, Green-AR, Youdim-MBH, Grahame-Smith-DG, Highes-JT.  Some
 histological and metabolic properties of an isolated perfused rat brain
 preparation with special reference to monoamine metabolism.  Neuroscience
 1:313-323 (1976).

Woods-HF, Youdim-MBH.  The isolated perfused rat brain preparation--a
 critical assessment.  Essays Neurochem Neuropharmacol 3:49-69 (1978).

Dirks-B, Krieglstein-J, Lind-HH, Rieger-H, Schutz-H.  Fluorocarbon perfusion
 medium applied to the isolated rat brain.  J Pharm Methods 4:95-108 (1980).

*Llinas-R, Yarom-Y, Sugimori-M.  Isolated mammalian brain in vitro:  new
 technique for analysis of electrical activity of neuronal circuit function.
 Fed Proc 40(8)-2240-2245 (1981).

Shapovalov-AI, Shiriaev-BI, Tamarova-ZA.  "A study of neuronal activity of
 mammalian superfused or intra-arterially perfused CNS preparations."  
 Electrophysiology of isolated mammalian CNS preparations (Kerkut-GA, Wheal-HV
 eds).  pp 367-394 (1981).

Mayevsky-A, Mizaw

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