On Mon, 15 Jul 2002 21:18:44 +0000 (UTC), "Patrick Druggan"
<Patrick.Druggan at btinternet.com> wrote:
>>why HACCP Validation? How does that link in with the other research your
Much of my astrobiological research uses the NASA Astrobiology
guidelines, one part of these guidelines involves "Planetary
Protection." I use the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
Validation (HACCP Validation) as part of my approach to the "Planetary
Protection" program. This mostly involves the sterilization of
spacecraft/landers/rovers/submarines that could contaminate new
lifeforms and their habitats. Planetary protection also includes
protection of Earth from new lifeforms. Cross-contamination is a
concern. HACCP Validations (sm) is a group of technical products
(mostly written validation protocols).
Many of the other NASA guideline areas are detection of the lifeforms
in the first place and the development of theories behind Astrobiology
itself, which I also work on. This is one of my current projects. It
is difficult to ensure planetary protection if we do not know what the
new lifeforms are doing, how they live or what they look like.
"HACCP" started with a joint project by Pillsbury foods and NASA, to
keep astronauts from getting food poisoning while on a space mission.
I worked of that for many years too.
"Validation" is the quality assurance program that ensures that the
HACCP program is working as designed. Validation is now, by US law,
is incorporated into the HACCP program and not really a separate
"Principle 2: Astrobiology encourages planetary stewardship, through
an emphasis on protection against biological contamination and
recognition of the ethical issues surrounding the export of
terrestrial life beyond Earth." -- NASA
Objective 17: Refine planetary protection guidelines and develop
protection technology for human and robotic missions. " -- NASA
1. Enigl, Davin C. 1979. Isolation and Identification of
Anaerobic Bacteria from Normal and Diseased Human Oral Sites.
University of Wisconsin. Library of Congress Catalog: QR 100 E5.
2. Sorrells, Kent M., Davin C. Enigl and John R. Hatfield. 1989.
Effect of pH, Acidulant, Time, and Temperature on the Growth and
Survival of Listeria monocytogenes. Journal of Food Protection 52:
3. Sorrells, Kent M. and Davin C. Enigl. 1990. Effect of pH,
Acidulant, Sodium Chloride and Temperature on the Growth of Listeria
monocytogenes. Journal of Food Safety 11: 31-37.
4. Enigl, Davin C., A. Douglas King and Tomas Török. 1993.
Talaromyces trachyspermus , A Heat-Resistant Mold Isolated From Fruit
Juice. Journal of Food Protection 56: 1039-1042.
5. Orth, D.S. and Davin C. Enigl. 1993. Preservative Efficacy
Testing by a Rapid Screening Method for Estimation of D-values.
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists 44: 329-336.
6. Enigl, Davin C. and Kent M. Sorrells. 1997. Water Activity
and Self-Preserving Formulas. In: Preservative-Free and
Self-Preserving Cosmetics and Drugs. Jon J. Kabara and Donald S.
Orth, Editors. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY. ISBN:
7. Enigl, Davin C. 1999. Creating Natural Preservative Systems
by Controlling Water Activity. Pharmaceutical Formulation and Quality
Vol. 3 No. 5. (Sept/Oct): 29-34.