GEP paper accepted for publication in Complex Systems

Candida Ferreira candidaf at gene-expression-programming.com
Thu Apr 19 04:05:29 EST 2001

Dear colleagues,

The revised and expanded version of my paper “Gene Expression Programming: A
New Adaptive Algorithm for Solving Problems” was accepted for publication by
Complex Systems. You can download the PDF at:


As always, I am interested in constructive comments related to the paper.


Gene Expression Programming: a New Adaptive Algorithm for Solving Problems

Candida Ferreira

Gene expression programming, a genotype/phenotype genetic algorithm (linear
and ramified), is presented here for the first time as a new technique for
creation of computer programs. Gene expression programming uses character
linear chromosomes composed of genes structurally organized in a head and a
tail. The chromosomes function as a genome and are subjected to modification
by means of mutation, transposition, root transposition, gene transposition,
gene recombination, one-point and two-point recombination. The chromosomes
encode expression trees which are the object of selection. The creation of
these separate entities (genome and expression tree) with distinct functions
allows the algorithm to perform with high efficiency and greatly surpass
existing adaptive techniques. The suite of problems chosen to illustrate the
power and versatility of gene expression programming includes symbolic
regression, sequence induction with and without constant creation, block
stacking, cellular automata rules for the density-classification problem,
and two problems of Boolean concept learning: the 11-multiplexer and the GP
rule problem.

Candida Ferreira, PhD
Assistant Professor of Biochemistry
Department of Agricultural Sciences
The Azores University
Email: candidaf at gene-expression-programming.com

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