S/O = sexual orientation
G/O = gender orientation
GnRH = LHRH = Gonadorelin
Copyright 1996 as part of Collected Writings of Teresa C. Binstock
(permission hereby granted to distribute this message in its entirety)
For the last seven years I have focused upon causal substrates of
sexual-orientation and gender-orientation. My readings and research have
been wide ranging and have focused upon environmental/psychogenic
factors, neuroanatomy, hormones and related enzymes, neuro-active
steroids and neurosteroids, in utero teratogens, homeotic genes,
genomic sex reversals (via X, Y, and autosomal chromosomes), and genomic
sex differences which are neither hormonal nor gonadal.
Lastly, I have focused upon immunology and related processes in humans
and in a cross-species and evolutionary perspective. 'Tis within
immunological mechanisms that I feel I have come closest to identifying
the substrate whereby sexual- and gender-orientations and variations
thereof occur in most humans.
Although various authors have touched upon immunological contributions
to sexuality and to sexual orientation (eg, Wachtel, Boyse, Gualteri, Hicks,
Blanchard, Wedekind, etc), no article that I have yet found asserts an
intra-individual immunological mechanism by which S/O or G/O or their
variations occur. And if such assertions/hypotheses are in the
literature, I would very much appreciate being informed via specific
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TERESA'S HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING S/O, G/O, and VARIATIONS THEREOF:
The biological basis of sexual- and gender-orientations is to be found
amidst immunological tissues of the nasal mucosa and possibly of the
epidermis. The closest analogy is a-factor and alpha-factor pheromones of
the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae; however, an important distinction
must be kept in mind regarding the word "pheromones".
1. S. Cerevisiae does not have a nose, a nasal mucosa, nor an olfactory
organ nor a vomeronasal organ.
2. The chemo-signal communications to which I refer regarding S/O and G/O
are neither olfactory nor vomeronasal, even though those two processes do
communicate aspects of sexual, maternal/neonate and social interaction.
3. The chemo-signals regarding S/O and G/O instead are received
throughout the nasal mucosa's immunologically reactive tissue and are
processed through Antigen-Presenting Cells, T-cells and B-cells, and
through immuno-mechanisms generally labeled as "innate immunity".
Some founding notions of Teresa's S/O G/O hypothesis include:
1. S. Cerevisiae alpha-factor mating pheromone is homologous to
2. Mammalian GnRH is first expressed in the olfactory placode and
migrates to various forebrain regions.
3. a-factor and alpha-factor mating pheromones are received by
membrane-spanning molecules labeled ste2 and ste3.
4. ste2 and ste3 homologues are present in human T-cells.
5. Human T-cells also can express GnRH.
6. Both S. Cerevisiae and human T-cell responses to antigen presentation
are mediated by cytoskeletan directedness to the site of antigen arrival.
7. H-Y antigens and their absence (in XX females) and their presence
(in X-Y males) are probably an important component of nasal-immunological
sexuality, as contributing to mechanisms for immunologically determining
self, not-self, same-species, and appropriate mating-type.
8. et cetera...
*** *** ***
The "immunological" similarities between humans and S. Cerevisiae are so
striking as, without further delay, to be worthy of public scrutiny,
including the fact that these G/O and S/O chemo-signalling mechanisms in
humans are neither olfactory nor vomeronasal.
My offering this immuno-sexuality hypothesis is based upon a realization
that in some subsets of persons with variations of S/O and/or G/O, the
causality may have occurred via other pathways. Similarly, for genomic
contributions to S/O and to G/O, just as there are a number of loci now
identified as capable of inducing cross-sexual genital development, so
too are there likely to be multiple loci whose various subsets may be
capable of inducing variations in S/O and/or G/O.
I shall provide references and additional "mini-papers" on this topic to
persons who so request by e-mail (short messages, please). A home page
is in the offing but not yet established.
I'm also interested in ideas regarding how to test my hypothesis
regarding the immunological basis of S/O and G/O in humans.
I apologize for the length of this post, and have omitted references and
further elaboration so as to minimize the length. Thank you.
Teresa C. Binstock, Researcher
Developmental & Behavioral Neuroanatomy
Denver CO USA
Teresa.Binstock at uchsc.edu