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BEN # 283

Adolf Ceska aceska at victoria.tc.ca
Sat Mar 9 11:01:39 EST 2002


BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             ISSN 1188-603X
BB   B   EE       NNN  N             
BBBBB    EEEEE    NN N N             BOTANICAL
BB   B   EE       NN  NN             ELECTRONIC
BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             NEWS

No. 283                              March 9, 2002

aceska at victoria.tc.ca                Victoria, B.C.
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 Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
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ALASKA RARE PLANT FORUM 2002 MEETING
From: Mary Stensvold [mstensvold at fs.fed.us]

The  Alaska  Rare  Plant Forum will hold its 2002 annual meeting
April 11th and 12th in Fairbanks at the Bureau of  Land  Manage-
ment, Northern District Office, 1150 University Avenue.

Anyone  interested in rare plants of northern regions is invited
to attend or to give a presentation. We are soliciting  speakers
and  agenda  items.  Topics  could include the results of recent
botanical work, descriptions of field trips, proposals for  2002
field  work  and presentations describing ongoing botanical work
or research.

If you wish to give a presentation, please  send  your  name,  a
brief  description  of  your presentation and the presentation's
approximate length to Mary Stensvold, Alaska Region, USDA Forest
Service, 204 Siginaka Way, Sitka, Alaska 99835.  E-mail  address
is: mstensvold at fs.fed.us. Telephone: 907-747-6671.


ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
From: Stan Rowe [stanrowe at netidea.com]

Two  objects of interest to ecologists are organisms and ecosys-
tems, the second the houses or homes  (Gr.  _oikos_)  that  give
eco/logy  its  name.  The  most  complete  ecosystem is Earth or
Ecosphere, the evolutionary source and support of  all  animated
things, and therefore an apt metaphor for "life."

Most  of  us  with  deep  interests  in wild creatures and their
survival begin as  biologists  --  as  botanists  or  zoologists
hooked  on  the  marvelously fascinating plants and animals that
abound on Earth.  The  thought  of  them  under  attack,  either
directly or by habitat destruction, is repellent. We want to see
them  preserved,  and  our  reasons  are  not  the crass ones of
utility. The so-called "Environmental Movement" too is  prompted
in  large  part by Nature's beauty perceived as under threat. An
innate aesthetic sense encourages both care for organisms  other
than  our  own species and a willingness to take action on their
behalf. The outcome of this wonder and appreciation is something
relatively new: moral concern expressed as ethical actions  that
extend beyond the human race.

The  first  thought  is the need for endangered-species legisla-
tion, expressing a "bio-ethic" focused on  plants  and  animals.
But  common  sense and ecology show that organisms are not self-
sufficient.   Without   the    vital    support    of    Earth's
inorganic/organic matrix they simply would not be. In itself the
slogan  "Save  Biodiversity"  is  unrealistic; something more is
needed. Aldo Leopold took the next step  by  proposing  a  "land
ethic,"  to  protect  organisms  by  making moral objects of the
landscapes that support and shelter them. A still more inclusive
step is to an "ecosystem ethic" that  places  highest  value  on
three-dimensional  sectors  of  Earth, on geographic places with
all their contents: the matrix  elements  of  land,  water,  and
atmosphere, as well as their contained communities of organisms.
These  are  the  fundamental  "living  units" on the face of the
Earth. Paraphrasing Tansley, the British  ecologist  who  intro-
duced the ecosystem concept in 1935, when we think fundamentally
we  cannot  separate  organisms  from their Earth-ecosystem con-
texts.

Improperly trained, we have been taught  to  perceive  ourselves
and  other  organisms  as "alive" within a "dead" matrix of air,
water, soil, and sediments. Today, aided  by  satellite  photog-
raphy,  we  can more truly view the whole Earth and its sectoral
geographic ecosystems as the locus of  "life."  This  god's-eye-
view,  seeing  the wholes of which organisms are parts, is to my
mind ecology's chief contribution  to  modern  thought.  It  il-
luminates  the  most  effective  direction  for conservation and
preservation efforts.

Further, it gives perspective within regional ecosystems to  our
own  living  and  dying. Of the latter, as happy a thought as is
perhaps possible: _Media morte in vita sumus_ -- "In  the  midst
of death we are surrounded by life!"


BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE, _LYTHRUM SALICARIA_ L.
From: Madlen Denoth [denoth at zoology.ubc.ca]

Purple  loosestrife is an invasive plant from Europe threatening
plants and wildlife in native wetlands of North America.  Tradi-
tional  methods  of  managing  the plant do not work and thus, a
biological control  project  has  been  initiated  in  1992.  In
biological control a specific natural enemy is imported from the
pest's country of origin and reunited with the pest in the hopes
to  control  it.  While the natural enemies cannot eradicate the
pest, they can potentially control it to  the  extent  that  the
invader  is not a threat any more. In British Columbia, a little
brown leaf-beetle with the name  _Galerucella  calmariensis_  L.
(Chrysomelidae), which is highly specific to purple loosestrife,
had  been released at several infested sites. These beetles have
been tested extensively before their introduction into Canada to
make sure they  are  safe.  The  same  beetles  have  also  been
released  in  many  US  states  and  several Canadian provinces.
Because the beetles are highly specific to  purple  loosestrife,
this  biological  control  program has proven to be safe and en-
vironmentally  friendly.  Considering  the  sensitivity  of  the
invaded habitats, biological control is the most suitable method
for managing purple loosestrife.

Testing biological control at Iona Beach Park

Iona  Beach  Park  (next to the Vancouver international airport)
consists of two neighboring  artificial  ponds  that  have  been
created  some 10 years ago. The disturbances associated with the
creation of the ponds have allowed purple loosestrife to  invade
the area. Now both ponds are surrounded by dense rings of mature
loosestrife  plants.  In  1997,  300  natural  enemies of purple
loosestrife have been released. The beetles at Iona  Beach  Park
have been monitored closely over the next years by Madlen Denoth
and  Judy  Myers from UBC. A beetle "outbreak" has been observed
at  the  North  pond  resulting  in  a  small  patch  of  purple
loosestrife  being completely defoliated. The size of this "out-
break area"  has  increased  and  purple  loosestrife  has  been
defoliated  in  one half of the pond. However, because of purple
loosestrife's underground storage, it will take several years of
severe attack before the plants eventually die.

Interested in participating?

Up to now, fewer than 50 releases  have  been  made  in  British
Columbia,  and  these  beetle populations are isolated from each
other. Thus, the success of this biological control  program  is
dependent on establishing a network of "beetle bases" in an area
so that the beetles are self-sustainable and can find and attack
loosestrife  infestations  themselves. The rearing and releasing
of the beetles is easy and does not require a lot of  equipment.
Two Naturalist groups have shown interest, the most active being
the  Langley  Field  Naturalists  Society  who have been rearing
loosestrife beetles for two years now. Hopefully,  other  groups
will show interest in the project so that beetle networks can be
established  in  different regions. If you have any questions or
if you are member of a group interested in participating in  the
project e-mail Madlen Denoth: denoth at zoology.ubc.ca.


BOOK REVIEW AND BOOK NOTICES BY RUDOLF SCHMID FROM THE
FEBRUARY 2002 ISSUE OF TAXON
From: Rudi Schmid <schmid at socrates.Berkeley.EDU>

Van  Pelt,  Robert.  _Forest  giants of the Pacific Coast._ Dec.
   2001. Global Forest Society, Vancouver, in assoc. w/  Univer-
   sity  of Washington Press, Seattle. xxiv, 200 pp., ill. (B&W,
   col.),  280x218  mm,   ISBN   0-295-98140-7   (PB),   $35.00.
   [_Contents:_  intro;  descr.  pt.;  appendices  (Eng., metric
   measures of trees; predicting vol. from diameter;  nomination
   data form); glossary; biblio.; index.]

Americans,  in  particular,  are  obsessed with "the best," "the
biggest," "the smallest," "the oldest," and other  superlatives.
A Briton I was traveling with in spring 1973 pointed this out to
me  as he marveled how even a single town could have two or more
cases of "the best burgers in the world." Since then the regret-
table McDonald's-ization of the world has spread the disease  of
superlatives.  There  are,  however,  some  genuinely worthwhile
accounts of superlatives, and Van Pelt's _Forest giants  of  the
Pacific  Coast_  is  one of them. California has a number of ar-
borescent superlatives, including: the Adventure Tree,  _Sequoia
sempervirens,_  at  101.8  m  being the tallest; the Boole Tree,
_Sequoiadendron giganteum,_ at 8.98 m and 28.2 m having, respec-
tively, the largest DBH and circumference; the  General  Sherman
Tree  of the same species at 1489 m3 having the greatest volume.
These two species plus _Thuja plicata,  Pseudotsuga  menziesii,_
and _Picea sitchensis_ "are the five largest species of trees in
the  world"  other  than the antipodal _Agathis australis,_ "the
only proven exception" (p. xxiv). "For most of the  species  the
largest  trees  are as yet undiscovered. The chance of finding a
new record for giant sequoia is nearly zip, likewise  for  coast
redwood" (p. x).

Van  Pelt, a forester who also did _Champion trees of Washington
state,_ 4th ed. (see _Taxon_  46:  417),  is  "equipped  with  a
camera,  a  sketchpad,  and  a  survey laser" and has amassed "a
database of over 5,000  individual  trees"  (back-cover  blurb).
_Forest  giants_  discusses  the  20  largest conifer species of
western North America, describing each  species  in  two  pages,
including  color photos and a newly produced distribution map in
color. Following each species account are detailed  descriptions
(one  or  two  pages)  of  tree giants, that is, "those with the
greatest wood volume" (back-cover blurb), 117 giants in all,  46
from  California,  38 from Washington, 15 from British Columbia,
14 from Oregon, and 2 each  from  Idaho  and  Montana,  all  il-
lustrated  with B&W "'architecturally correct'" (p. xix) profile
diagrams and superb  color  photos  taken  with  a  perspective-
control  lens.  A  12-page introduction is essential reading for
methodology and an overview of forest types. In all, this is  an
interesting  book  with  lots  of  fascinating information about
arborescent giants.

Burian, Rick (Richard M.). _Native orchids of  Oregon._  [2000.]
   Oregon Orchid Society, Box 14182, Portland, OR 97293, USA. 40
   pp.,  ill.,  no ISBN (PB), price unknown. 
   [_Contents:_ intro;  def. orchid;  glossary;  ill.  glossary; 
   descr.  pt.;  biblio.; biobibs.;  no  index (or contents). On 
   25 taxa, none endemic; no keys.]
Derig, Betty B. & Fuller,  Margaret  C.  _Wild  berries  of  the
   West._  2001.  Mountain  Press Publishing Co., Box 2399, Mis-
   soula, MT 59806, USA (http://www.mtnpress.com). ix, [i], 235,
   [2] pp., ill. (most col.), ISBN 0-87842- 433-4 (PB), $16.00.
   [_Contents:_ intro; descr. pt.;  recipes;  bot.  gards.;  pl.
   source  guide;  geogr.  glossary  Indian  tr.; ill. glossary;
   biblio.; indices. On over 150 taxa w/ berries et  al.  fleshy
   fr. types.]
Hall,  Judy  Kathryn. _Native plants of southeast Alaska._ 1995.
   Windy Ridge Publishing, Box  1158,  Haines,  AK  99827,  USA.
   [ix],  xv,  283,  [1] pp., ill., ep. scales, no ISBN (spiral-
   bd.), price unknown.
   [_Contents:_ intro; key to fam.; tax. pt.; glossary; biblio.;
   index.]
Lyons, C. P. (Chester Peter). _Wildflowers of Washington._ 1997.
   Lone Pine Publishing, 1901 Raymond Ave. S.W., Suite  C,  Ren-
   ton,  WA  98055, USA (http://www.lonepinepublishing.com). 192
   pp., ill. (most col.), ISBN 1-55105-092-7 (PB), $15.95.
   [_Contents:_ intro; explorer botanists;  ecosystems;  ecosys.
   map;  fl.  areas;  how  to  ID  pls.;  nomen.; key; tax. pt.;
   biblio.; index; biobib. On over 500 taxa (incl. ferns!)  arr.
   by col. - Chess Lyons' obituary see BEN # 212]
Maser,  Chris.  _Forest  primeval: The natural history of an an-
   cient forest._ 1989 (2001 reissue). Oregon  State  University
   Press,   101   Waldo  Hall,  Corvallis,  OR  97331-6407,  USA
   (http://osu.orst.edu/dept/press). xxi, 282 pp., ill., ISBN 0-
   87071-529-1 (PB), $19.95.
   [Originally publ. 1989 by Sierra Club Books,  San  Francisco.
   _Contents:_ intro; in the beginning; birth; young forest (F);
   mature  F;  ancient  F; epilog; glossary; Lat., common names;
   biblio.; index. Narrative of a forest in Cascades  of  Oregon
   from 987-1988.]
 O'Clair,  Rita  M.   &  Lindstrom,  Sandra  C.  _North  Pacific
   seaweeds._ 2000. Plant Press, Auke Bay. xii, 162 pp., 16  pp.
   pls.  (col.),  text  ill.  (B&W), ISBN 0-9664245-1-4 (spiral-
   bd.), $24.95 (from  Plant  Press,  General  Delivery,  Friday
   Harbor, WA 98250, USA).
   [_Contents:_   def.  algae;  tax.  pt.;  recipes;  checklist;
   biblio.; glossary; index; biobibs. On 154 spp. green,  brown,
   red algae, and seagrasses found along ne. Pac. coasts betwixt
   Aleutian Is., Alaska, and s. Oregon; no keys, but extensively
   ill.  w/  66  col.  photos,  147  drawings ably done by K. M.
   Hocker & P. S. Holley. Lindstrom  &  I.  M.  Brodo  also  did
   _Southeast  Alaska's  rocky  shores:  Seaweeds  and  lichens_
   (Ibid., 1996, xii, 151 pp., o.p.--not seen, cf. BEN # 144).]


TERRY BALL'S PHYTOLITH PAGE
From: Terry Ball <Terry_Ball at byu.edu>

Due to a change in servers I have a new address  for  the  page.
The  address is http://home.byu.net/~tbb/tball/index2.html Sorry
for the confusion. Hope this is helpful. Terry


ULTIMATE PALINDROME: NEVER SAY NEVER !

Both BEN and Scott Russell received a number  of  messages  (one
even  from  Greece)  that  the  Ultimate Palindromic Moment will
occur at least once more, on December 21, at 21:12 in  the  year
2112  (21:12 21/12 2112). It also looks to me (if I am not wrong
again) that there could also be two palindromic moments  in  one
year,  at  7:02 p.m., one in January and the other in October of
the year 2091 (19:02 01/10 2091).

I don't get similar comments to any botanical articles and notes
posted in BEN, and we interpret this wrong posting as a modified  
Capture-Recapture  Experiment with the following results:

 1. There are some people who really read BEN.
 2. BEN is NEVER wrong when dealing with botanical subjects.

Apologies to all our readers, especially to  that  irate  mathe-
matician  who advised BEN to stay away from mathematics. Special
apologies to Andy MacKinnon, who  once  proclaimed:  "I  believe
everything what is posted in BEN." Yours truly, BEN

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