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No. 273 September 25, 2001
aceska at victoria.tc.ca Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
WETLANDS OF INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE: RAMSAR SITES IN CANADA
What is the Ramsar Convention?
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, also known
as the Ramsar Convention , was named after the city in Iran
where the text was first adopted in 1971 through the cooperation
of 18 nations. The Convention is an intergovernmental treaty
that provides the framework for international cooperation for
the conservation of the World's wetland habitats. As of May
1999, 114 nation states comprise the Contracting Parties to the
Convention worldwide. Numerous observer organizations and non-
contracting nations also play an indirect role in the business
of the Convention. Canada became a Contracting Party to the
Ramsar Convention in 1981. Contracting Parties to the Convention
have recognized that wetlands are essential not only for
hydrological and ecological processes but also for the rich
fauna and flora they support as well as for human activities.
The Convention's objectives focus on stemming the loss of wet-
lands and ensuring their conservation and sustainable wise use
for future generations.
As of May 1999, 36 Ramsar sites have been designated under the
Ramsar Convention in Canada. These sites are found in all of
Canada's provinces and territories and cover a surface area, in
total, of over 13 million hectares of designated wetlands and
associated uplands. Most of these sites are described in the
publication Wetlands for the World: Canada's Ramsar Sites.
Canada's 36 sites represent close to 20% of the wetland area
designated world-wide under the Convention to date.
Where are Canada's Ramsar Sites?
Site/Location Year Established Area (ha)
1. Grand Codroy Estuary 1987 925
2. Malpeque Bay 1988 24,440
3. Chignecto 1985 1,020
4. Musquodoboit Harbour Outer Estuary 1987 1,925
5. Southern Bight, Minas Basin 1987 26,800
6. Mary's Point 1982 1,200
7. Shepody Bay 1987 12,200
8. Tabusintac Estuary and Lagoon 1993 4,382
9. Cap Tourmente 1981 2,398
10. Baie de L'Isle-Verte 1987 2,028
11. Lac Saint-François 1987 2,214
12. Long Point 1982 13,730
13. St.Clair 1985 244
14. Point Pelee 1987 1,564
15. Southern James Bay 1987 25,290
16. Polar Bear Provincial Park 1987 2,408,700
17. Mer Bleue 1996 1,840
18. Matchedash Bay 1995 3,100
19. Minesing Swamp 1996 6,000
20. Lac St-Pierre 1998 11,952
21. Delta Marsh 1982 23,000
22. Oak Hammock Marsh 1987 3,600
23. Last Mountain Lake 1982 15,602
24. Quill Lakes 1982 63,500
25. Peace-Athabasca Delta 1982 321,300
26. Hay-Zama Lakes 1982 50,000
27. Beaverhill Lake 1987 18,050
28. Alaksen 1982 586
29. Creston Valley 1994 6,970
30. Whooping Crane Summer Range 1982 1,689,500
31. Queen Maud Gulf 1982 6,278,200
32. Rasmussen Lowlands 1982 300,000
33. McConnell River 1982 32,800
34. Dewey Soper 1982 815,900
35. Polar Bear Pass 1982 262,400
36. Old Crow Flats 1982 617,000
For more information on these sites see
REVIEW: DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF EUROPEAN BRYOPHYTES
From: Adolf Ceska [aceska at victoria.tc.ca]
Dierssen, K. 2001. Distribution, ecological amplitude and
phytosociological characterization of European bryophytes.
Bryophytorum Bibliotheca, Band 56. J. Cramer in Gebrueder
Borntraeger, Berlin-Stuttgart. 289 p. ISBN 3-443-62028-0
[softcover] Price DM 140.00.
Gebr. Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung
Johannesstr. 3 A
e-mail: mail at schweizerbart.de
In this compendium, Prof. Klaus Dierssen (University of Kiel,
Germany) listed geographical distribution, ecological charac-
teristics and phytosociological preferences of about 1,150
mosses and about 450 liverworts that occur in Europe and in
Macaronesia (Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira, and Capo Verde).
"Geographical distribution" is expressed by the formula
developed by Meusel et al. ("_Vergleichende Chorologie der
zentraleuropaeischen Flora_") and widely adopted in Central-
European botanical literature (e.g., in a simplified form in
Rothmaler's "_Exkursionsflora_"). Threat categories follow the
IUCN threat classification and are given for all taxa, except
those which are not threatened.
The section on "Ecological amplitude" gives preferences of each
individual species for acidity, nutrient availability, pollu-
tion, humidity, heat balance, light, substrate, and human im-
pact. Preferred habitats are summarized in one or more lines of
a "free language" description (e.g., "usually on decaying or-
ganic matter, most frequently on rotting tree stumps, oc-
casionally on old grass tussocks, on the border of peat diggings
and regionally on sandstone" for _Aulacomnium androgynum_). The
"Life strategy category," equivalent to "life forms" in vascular
plants, is also listed for each species.
Under "phytosociological characterization" the author lists
occurrences of each bryophyte species in bryophyte and vascular
plant communities. In this part, he refers to two class-
ifications presented in the introduction, one on the bryophyte
communities of Europe and the other on the "European vegetation
types more or less rich in bryophytes".
Over 28 pages of "Consulted literature" list about 600 bryologi-
cal and phytosociological publications.
Dr. Klaus Dierssen started his academic career as a student of
Prof. Reinhold Tuexen (a prominent Central European guru of
plant sociology). He also spent some time at the University of
Freiburg, where he met Prof. Otti Wilmanns (a phytosociologist
who focused on bryophytes) and Prof. Erich Oberdorfer (who
produced the first classical synthesis of South-German plant
communities). In fact, I feel that Oberdorfer's "_Pflanzen-
soziologische Exkursionsflora_" was the great inspiration to
Klaus Dierssen in producing this excellent summary of ecological
requirements and indicator values of bryophytes.
This is a unique book that contains plenty of useful information
on mosses and liverworts of Europe. Since many species treated
in this book have wider distribution or are circumpolar, this
book will find an attentive audience outside Europe. In North
America it will be welcomed by bryologists, plant ecologists,
and everyone who is interested in vegetation and its bryophyte
For other titles in the Bryophytorum Bibliotheca series see:
ANTONI W.H. (TON) DAMMAN - BIBLIOGRAPHY
From: Karen Golinski [golinski at uvic.ca] and
Adolf Ceska [aceska at victoria.tc.ca]
[Dr. A.W.H. (Ton) Damman died in his sleep on December 27, 2000
(BEN 263, January 16, 2001). In that issue I had promised to
post his bibliography in the next issue, but the compilation of
this bibliography took much longer than expected. - AC]
Damman, A.W.H. & D.M. de Vries. 1954. Testing of grassland
associations by combinations of species. Biol. Jaarb.
(Dodonaea), Antwerp 21: 35-46.
Damman, A.W.H. 1957. The South-Swedish Calluna-heath and its
relation to the _Calluneto-Genistetum_. Botaniska Notiser
Damman, A.W.H. 1962. Development of hydromorphic humus podzols
and some notes on the classification of podzols in general.
J. Soil Sci. 13: 92-97.
Damman, A.W.H. 1963. Key to the _Carex_ species of Newfoundland
by vegetative characteristics. Dept. of Forestry publication
no. 1017. Queen's Printer, Ottawa. 39 p.
Damman, A.W.H. 1964. Some forest types of central Newfoundland
and their relation to environmental factors. Forest Science
Monograph No. 8: 1-62. [Reprints issued as the Forest Re-
search Branch Contribution No. 596, Department of Forestry,
Damman, A.W.H. 1965. The distribution patterns of northern and
southern elements in the flora of Newfoundland. Rhodora 67:
Damman, A.W.H. 1965. Thin iron pans: Their occurrence and the
conditions leading to their development. Canada Dept.
Forestry, Inform. Rep. N-X-2. 14 p.
Damman, A.W.H. 1967. The Forest Vegetation of Western New-
foundland and Site Degradation Associated with Vegetation
Change. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
Michigan. 319 p.
McKeague, J.A., A.W.H. Damman, & P.K. Heringa. 1968. Iron-
manganese and other pans in some soils of Newfoundland. Can.
J. Soil Sci. 48: 243-253.
Damman, A.W.H. 1971. Effect of vegetation changes on the fer-
tility of a Newfoundland forest site. Ecological Monographs
Damman, A.W.H. 1975. Permanent changes in the chronosequence of
a boreal forest habitat induced by natural disturbances. Pp.
499-515 in Schmidt, W. [ed.] Sukzessionsforschung : (Rinteln,
16.-19. 4. 1973) - Berichte der internationalen Symposien der
Internationalen Vereinigung fuer Vegetationskunde. J. Cramer,
Vaduz. 622 p.
Damman, A.W.H. 1976. Plant distribution in Newfoundland espe-
cially in relation to summer temperatures measured with the
sucrose inversion method. Canadian Journal of Botany 54:
Damman, A.W.H. 1977. Geographical changes in the vegetation
pattern of raised bogs in the Bay of Fundy region of Maine
and New Brunswick. Vegetatio 35 (3): 137-151.
Damman, A.W.H. 1978. Distribution and movement of elements in
ombrotrophic peat bogs. Oikos 30: 480-495.
Damman, A.W.H. 1979. Amphi-Atlantic correlations in the
Oxycocco-Sphagnetea: a critical evaluation. Documents
Phytosociologiques N.S. (Lille) 4: 187-195.
Damman, A.W.H. 1979. Geographic patterns in peatland development
in eastern North America. Pp. 42-57 in: Kivinen, E., L.
Heikurainen, and P. Pakarinen [eds.] Symposium on Class-
ification of Peat and Peatlands, Hyytiala, Finland, September
17-21, 1979. International Peat Society, 367 p.
Damman, A.W.H. 1979. Mobilization and Accumulation of Heavy
Metals in Freshwater Wetlands. U.S. Dept. Inter. Rep. OWRT
Project A-073-CONN. 14 pp.
Damman, A.W.H. 1980. Ecological and floristic trends in
ombrotrophic bogs of eastern North America. Pp. 61-79 in:
J.M. Gehu (ed.). La vegetation des sols tourbeux. Lille -
1978. Colloques Phytosociologiques, VII. J. Cramer, Vaduz
[Liechtenstein]. 494 p.
Damman, A.W.H., and J.J. Dowhan. 1981. Vegetation and habitat
condition in Western Head Bog, a southern Nova Scotian
plateau bog. Canadian Journal of Botany 59: 1343-1359.
Damman, A.W.H. 1983. An ecological subdivision of the island of
Newfoundland. Pp. 163-206 in: South G.R. [ed.] Biogeography
and Ecology of the Island of Newfoundland. Monographiae
biologicae v. 48. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague. 723 p.
Metzler, K.J. & A.W.H. Damman. 1985. Vegetation patterns in the
Connecticut River flood plain in relation to frequency and
duration of flooding. Naturaliste canadien, Quebec 112: 535-
Damman, A.W.H. 1986. Hydrology, development and biogeochemistry
of ombrogenous peat bogs with special reference to nutrient
relocation in a western Newfoundland bog. Canadian Journal of
Botany 64: 384-394.
Damman, A.W.H. 1987. Variation in ombrotrophy: chemical dif-
ferences among and within ombrotrophic bogs. Pp. 85-93 in:
C.D.A Rubec & R.P. Overend [eds.] Proceedings: Symposium 1987
Wetlands/ Peatlands, August 23-27, Edmonton, Alberta.
Damman, A.W.H. & French, T.W. 1987. The ecology of peat bogs of
the glaciated northeastern United States: a community
profile. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Serv. Biol. Rep. 85(7.16) 100
Damman, A.W.H. 1988. Regulation of nitrogen removal and reten-
tion in Sphagnum bogs and other peatlands. Oikos 51: 291-305.
Damman, A.W.H. 1988. Spatial and seasonal changes in water
chemistry and vegetation in an ombrogenous bog. Pp. 107-119
in: Verhoeven, J.T.A., G.W. Heil, & M.J.A. Werger [eds.]
Vegetation Structure in Relation to Carbon and Nutrient
Economy. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands.
Damman, A.W.H. 1990. Nutrient status of ombrotrophic peat bogs.
Aquilo Ser Bot. 28: 5-14.
Johnson, L.C., A.W.H. Damman, & N. Malmer. 1990. Sphagnum macro-
structure as an indicator of decay and compaction in peat
cores from an ombrotrophic south Swedish peat-bog. J. Ecol.
Benoit, J.M., A.W.H. Damman, & W.F. Fitzgerald. 1991. Mercury
distribution and depositional fluxes in an ombrotrophic peat
bog in Minnesota. Abstracts, The Biogeochemistry of Wetlands
Symposium, Louisiana State University. February 10-13, 1991,
Baton Rouge, LA.
Johnson, L.C. & A.W.H. Damman. 1991. Species-regulated decay in
bog, fen and ash forest in northern Maine. [Abstract] Bull.
Ecol. Soc. Amer. 72 (2 Suppl.): 156.
Johnson, L.C. & A.W.H. Damman. 1991. Species-controlled Sphagnum
decay on a south Swedish raised bog. Oikos 61: 234-242.
Benoit, J.M., W.F. Fitzgerald, & A.W.H. Damman. 1992. Historical
atmospheric mercury distribution in the mid-continental U.S.
as recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog. Abstracts 2nd Inter-
national Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant. May 31
- June 4, 1992, Monterey, CA.
Tolonen, K., H. Vasander, A.W.H. Damman, & R.S. Clymo. 1992.
Rate of apparent and true carbon accumulation in boreal
peatlands. Proceedings of the 9th International Peat Con-
gress, Uppsala, Sweden, 22-26 June 1992, Vol. 1: 319-333.
Damman, A.W.H., K. Tolonen, & T. Sallantaus. 1993. Element
retention and removal in ombrotrophic peat of Haadetkeidas, a
boreal Finnish peat bog. Suo, Helsinki 43("1992"): 137-145.
Tolonen, K., H. Vasander, A.W.H. Damman, & R.S. Clymo. 1993.
Preliminary estimate of long-term carbon accumulation and
loss in 25 boreal peatlands. Suo, Helsinki 43("1992"): 277-
Johnson, L.C. & A.W.H. Damman. 1993. Decay and its regulation in
_Sphagnum_ peatlands. Advances in Bryology 5: 249-296.
Benoit, J.M., W.F. Fitzgerald, & A.W.H. Damman. 1994. Historical
atmospheric mercury deposition in the mid-continental United
States as recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog. Pp. 187-202
in: C.J. Watras & J.W. Huckabee [eds.] Mercury pollution:
integration and synthesis. Lewis Press, Boca Raton, FL. 727
Damman, A.W.H. 1995. Major mire vegetation units in relation to
the concepts of ombrotrophy and minerotrophy: a worldwide
perspective. Gunneria, Trondheim 70: 23-34.
[Note: Gunneria 70:1-344 is a collection of papers on
"Regional variation and conservation of mire ecosystems"
submitted to the International Mire Conservation Group,
edited by A. Moen and published by the University of
Damman, A.W.H. 1995. Boreal peatlands in Norway and eastern
North America: a comparison. Gunneria, Trondheim 70: 43-65.
Damman, A.W.H. 1996. Peat accumulation in fens and bogs: effects
of hydrology and fertility. Pp. 213-222 in: Laiho, R. et al.
(eds.) Northern peatlands in global climate change. Proceed-
ings of the International Workshop, October 8-12, 1995,
Hyytiala, Finland. Publications of the Academy of Finland
1/96, Helsinki. 314 p.
Benoit, J.M., W.F. Fitzgerald, & A.W.H. Damman. 1998. The
biogeochemistry of an ombrotrophic bog: evaluation of use as
an archive of atmospheric mercury deposition. Environmental
Research, Section A 78: 118-133.
Fitzgerald, W.F., C.H. Lamborg, A.W.H. Damman, J.M. Benoit, &
P.H. Balcom. 1999. Contemporary and Historical Eolian Deposi-
tional Fluxes of Mercury: Archival Records In Ombrotrophic
Bogs and Lake Sediments From Nova Scotia and New Zealand.
Abstracts 5th International Conference on Mercury as a Global
Pollutant, Rio de Janeiro Spring, May 23-28, 1999.
Lamborg, C.H., W.F. Fitzgerald, A.W.H. Damman, J.M. Benoit, P.H.
Balcom, & D.R. Engstrom. 2000. Atmospheric Mercury Fluxes As
Recorded in Lake Sediments: The Lack of an Historic Global
Signal From Au and Ag Mining. Published in the proceedings of
the Conference on Assessing and Managing Mercury From His-
toric and Current Mining Activities (U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency). San Francisco, California, November 28 -
Fitzgerald, W.F., C.H. Lamborg, C.-M. Tseng, D.R. Engstrom,
A.W.H. Damman, J.M. Benoit, & P.H. Balcom. 2001. Modern and
Historic Atmospheric Mercury Fluxes in both Hemispheres:
Global and Regional Mercury Cycling Implications. Abstracts,
6th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pol-
lutant, Minamata, Japan, October 15-19, 2001. (manuscript in
preparation with C.H. Lamborg as first author)
Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Drs. Denisa Blazkova,
Kendrick Brown, Loretta Johnson, Williams F. Fitzgerald and
Pekka Pakarinen for their help with compiling this bibliography.
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