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No. 269 June 2, 2001
aceska at victoria.tc.ca Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
HARD GRASS (_SCLEROCHLOA DURA_), NEW TO BRITISH COLUMBIA
From: Michael J. Oldham [michael.oldham at mnr.gov.on.ca]
While attending the Committee on the Status of Endangered
Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) meeting in early May 2001 at
Osoyoos, British Columbia, I encountered a roadside population
of Hard Grass (_Sclerochloa dura_ (L.) Beauv.; Poaceae). Hard
Grass has not been previously reported from British Columbia
(Hubbard 1969, Taylor and MacBryde 1977, Scoggan 1978, Branden-
burg et al. 1991, Douglas et al. 1994, Kartesz and Meacham 1999,
G.W. Douglas pers. comm. 2001).
Hard Grass is a small, early flowering, annual, European grass
of open disturbed areas such as roadsides, campgrounds,
playgrounds, athletic fields, and fairgrounds. It is widespread
but local in the United States (Brandenburg et al. 1991) and is
apparently expanding its range in the U.S. midwest (A.W. Cusick
pers. comm. 1999; R.K. Rabeler pers. comm. 2000). Elsewhere in
Canada _Sclerochloa dura_ is known only from two collections in
southwestern Ontario (M.J. Oldham 19674 (DAO, MICH, NHIC [her-
barium of the Natural Heritage Information Centre], TRT, WAT),
20 May 1997, Ridgetown Fairground, Kent County, 42 deg. 26' 50"
N, 81 deg. 52' 40" W; M.J. Oldham & A.W. Cusick 19702 (DAO,
MICH, TRTE), 22 May 1997, Brigden Fairground, Lambton County, 42
deg. 48' 20" N, 82 deg. 16' 50" W), although it has not been
formally reported from the Ontario flora (Morton and Venn 1990,
Newmaster et al. 1998).
In Osoyoos, British Columbia, _Sclerochloa dura_ was found on a
disturbed gravel roadside near the Best Western Motel, but was
not seen elsewhere along roadsides or in other disturbed ground
in or near Osoyoos. About 20 _Sclerochloa_ plants were encoun-
tered on 2 May 2001, growing with _Poa annua_ (Annual Bluegrass)
and _P. bulbosa_ (Bulbous Bluegrass). Voucher specimens were
collected (M.J. Oldham 25260) and will be deposited at DAO,
MICH, and UBC.
_Sclerochloa dura_ is superficially similar to and often grows
with _Poa annua_. Both species flower relatively early in the
year and can be distinguished by their inflorescences, which in
_Sclerochloa_ are distinctly one-sided, quite unlike the more or
less symmetric ones of _P. annua_. The branches of _S. dura_ are
ascending to prostrate, forming clumps to 12 cm wide. A techni-
cal description and illustrations can be found in Brandenburg et
Hard Grass will probably be found elsewhere in southern British
Columbia in open, disturbed sites. It has been known from ad-
jacent Washington state since at least 1932, although not from
any counties bordering British Columbia (Brandenburg et al.
Acknowledgements: George Douglas provided confirmation that Hard
Grass is new to British Columbia, and Allison Cusick and Richard
Rabeler provided useful information and discussions on the
Brandenburg, D.M., J.R. Estes & J.W. Thieret. 1991. Hard Grass
(_Sclerochloa dura_, Poaceae) in the United States. Sida
Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley & D. Meidinger (editors). 1994. The
Vascular Plants of British Columbia. Part 4 --
Monocotyledons. Special Report Series 4, Ministry of Forests
Research Program, Victoria, B.C. 257 p.
Hubbard, W.A. 1969. The Grasses of British Columbia. Handbook
No. 9, British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria. 205 p.
Kartesz, J.T. & C.A. Meacham. 1999. Synthesis of the North
American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden,
Chapel Hill, NC. CD ROM.
Morton, J.K. & J.M. Venn. 1990. A Checklist of the Flora of
Ontario Vascular Plants. University of Waterloo Biology
Series No. 34, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario. 218
Newmaster, S.G., A. Lehela, P.W.C. Uhlig, S. McMurray & M.J.
Oldham. 1998. Ontario Plant List. Forest Research Information
Paper No. 123, Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. 550
p. + appendices.
Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. Part 2: Pteridophyta,
Gymnospermae, Monocotyledoneae. National Museum of Natural
Sciences Publications in Botany 7(2): 93-545.
Taylor, R.L. & B. MacBryde. 1977. Vascular Plants of British
Columbia: A Descriptive Resource Inventory. Technical Bul-
letin No. 4, University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver,
B.C. 754 p.
Michael J. Oldham, Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 7000, 300 Water Street,
Peterborough, Ontario, Canada K9J 8M5
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF _CASTILLEJA LEVISECTA_
From: Art Guppy, 4704 Sooke Road, Victoria, British Columbia,
Canada V9C 4B9
_Castilleja levisecta_ (Scrophulariaceae) may well be the
easiest of all members of that genus to grow in a garden [see
BEN # 156 and BEN # 158]. Plants that have been grown from seed
can be quickly increased by use of cuttings.
Like many _Castilleja_, this species produces many shots near
ground level starting in the fall. By late February these shoots
are large enough to use as cuttings and generally the plant
produces such a redundancy of these shoots that a few can be
taken without harm to the plant.
Before collecting the cuttings, prepare the selected host plants
by using a narrow trowel to dig holes close to the host roots
and fill holes with sand. Work quickly after collecting the
cuttings to avoid letting them wilt. Insert one or two in each
sand-filled hole and water them in. Improvise a cloche with a
small ventilation hole to prevent wilting and provide shade
until the cuttings are rooted and growing. Water frequently
during the first summer.
_Eriophyllum lanatum_ is a good natural host. _Symphoricarpos
mollis_ is also a good host, though is not known to be a host in
nature. Other hosts may also produce good results. A small shoot
of _Castilleja levisecta_ placed near the roots of a plant of
_Artemisia stelleriana_ (native to sand benches on the coast of
northeast Asia) about March 1, 2000 had grown by May, 2001 into
a very large plant with 32 large flowering branches. However,
this may not be a good pairing as the _Artemisia_ now looks very
_ISOETES MINIMA_ A.A. EATON (ISOETACEAE): AN OVERLOOKED
TERRESTRIAL QUILLWORT OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST
From: Adolf & Oldriska Ceska c/o [aceska at victoria.tc.ca]
_Isoetes minima_ was described from a single collection made by
Wilhelm Suksdorf from Spangle near Spokane, WA, and until
recently, the only authentic material of this taxon has been the
type specimen. On the same collecting trip, Suksdorf collected
copious material of _Isoetes howellii_ that looked superficially
the same as the type of _I. minima_. Based on this limited
material, N.E. Pfeiffer reduced _I. minima_ into a variety of
The Flora of North America followed Pfeiffer and redefined this
variety to include any small plants of _I. howellii_ with small
megaspores. Several years ago, we found several populations of
_I. minima_ in Wenatchee Mountains, WA, and in 1996 this species
was also found in south-central British Columbia. The species
can be considered rare in British Columbia and Washington.
_Isoetes minima_ differs from _I. howellii_ by having small,
spiny megaspores and by sporangia that completely lack velum.
Megaspores of _Isoetes howellii_ have low ridges and its sporan-
gia have partial velum.
Ecologically, it occupies the most extreme, driest habitats
among the western North American terrestrial _Isoetes_ species.
It grows in periodically wet depressions in _Artemisia triden-
tata_ sagebrush with _Camassia quamash_, _Allium douglasii_,
_Hesperochiron pumilus_, _Lewisia pygmaea_, and _Floerkea
proserpinacoides_ as accompanying species.
Representative specimens (deposited in V - Royal British Colum-
bia Museum, Victoria, BC, Canada):
Canada, British Columbia: Salmo; slopes above Highway # 3, 12 km
west of Salmo on the way to Castlegar. 49 deg. 11.839' N. 117
deg. 27.221' W. Habitat: Seasonally wet depressions among
rocky ledges. Growing with _Floerkea proserpinacoides_. July
5, 1996 Adolf & Oldriska Ceska AC# 30,000 SEM # 7170-7176
Canada, British Columbia: Castlegar; "Lloyd's Meadows" 8.2 km
west of Castlegar. UTM: 11U 443460 5460084 July 12, 1996 Hans
Roemer HR# 96-164 SEM # 7177-7185
USA, Washington: Colockum Pass between Ellensberg and Wenatchee.
Habitat: seasonally wet swales in _Artemisia tridentata_
shrub steppe. Growing with _Camassia quamash_, _Allium
douglasii_, _Hesperochiron pumilus_, _Floerkea proserpina-
coides_, _Claytonia nevadensis_, _Montia linearis_ etc. June
30, 1985 Adolf & Oldriska Ceska AC# 19,754 SEM # 7186-7190
On June 22, 2001 we saw the following populations of _Isoetes
minima_ at Colockum Pass (GPS Garmin II+, NAD83):
47 deg. 08' 53.6" 120 deg. 19' 18.7" about 30 plants
47 deg. 11' 35.7" 120 deg. 16' 50.0" 3 plants
47 deg. 11' 43.0" 120 deg. 16' 47.2" 2 plants
47 deg. 11' 54.3" 120 deg. 16' 40.9" > 200 plants
SPECIMENS OF _PELTIGERA_ WANTED
From: Anna Crewe c/o William Purvis [W.Purvis at nhm.ac.uk]
I am working on my MSc project (_Taxonomy of the Peltigera
section Polydactylon in the Azores_) with Dr William Purvis at
the Natural History Museum.
For my molecular work I would greatly appreciate recent, air-
dried collections of the following species:
Thanks very much for you help.
Anna Crewe c/o Dr. William Purvis
Department of Botany
The Natural History Museum
London SW7 5BD
THE EUROPEAN GARDEN FLORA: CONCLUSION OF A MONUMENTAL PROJECT
From: Adolf Ceska [aceska at victoria.tc.ca]
Cullen, J. et al. [eds.] 2000. The European garden flora : A
manual for the identification of plants cultivated in Europe,
both out-of-doors and under glass. Volume VI: Loganiaceae to
Compositae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge - New York
- Sidney - ... xv + 739 p. ISBN 0-521-42097-0 [hard cover]
Price: US$ 175.00
USA: Cambridge University Press, North American Branch
40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211 USA
Tel.: 212-924-3900, Fax: 212-691-3239
Email: information at cup.org -
web site: http://www.cup.org/
UK web site: http://www.cambridge.org
This is the final, sixth volume that complete this monumental
research. The project was sponsored by the Royal Horticultural
Society, the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh, and the Stanley
Smith Horticultural Trust. It officially started in 1979 by the
British botanists who had been on the Flora Europaea editorial
team. The first volume appeared in 1984 and this last volume in
2000, only one year later than originally planned.
The sixth volume covers 38 families and over 190 genera of most
sympetalous dicot families. It contains keys to the families,
genera and species of the covered plants, their descriptions and
information on their distribution and notes on their taxonomy
and nomenclature. The illustrations are sparse (48 tables in-
cluding 4 on general morphological terms), and when they are
included, they illustrate details for identification of selected
taxa (e.g., nutlets of Boraginaceae, leaves of _Viburnum_,
etc.). The lack of illustrations is compensated by references to
illustrations published elsewhere, and the reference to the
illustration immediately follows the species name and synonymy.
Pertinent taxonomical literature is cited for each family and
The selection of species in floras such as this one is
problematic since the book is shooting at a moving target.
Numerous seed collectors beat the tradition by introducing new
plants into cultivation, as well as seed exchanges between
botanical gardens and among members of horticultural societies.
But even with the chase for rarities, the basic assortment of
houseplants or plants in gardens remains essentially the same.
The selection of species in this book was based on "a compila-
tion of all European nursery catalogues," _The Plant Finder_,
_The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening_ and many other basic
references. The selection is quite broad. For example, 58
species of _Penstemon_ (including the rare Columbia Gorge en-
demic _Penstemon barretiae_), 98 species of _Salvia_, 31 species
of _Veronica_, are included in the account.
The price is quite high at US$175.00, but the work is an impor-
tant reference to all interested in garden plants and plants in
cultivation. Quite a few garden plants have become unwanted
invasive species, and the Flora also serves as an essential
reference to those who are interested in introductions and
invasive plant species.
The earlier volumes are still available and are listed below. It
is interesting to note that the British catalogue of the
Cambridge University Press (http://www.cambridge.org) offers the
whole 6-volume set for a bargain price of GBP 500.00, whereas
the US branch (http://www.cup.org) does not mention this offer.
List of all six volumes of the _European Garden Flora_:
Eur Garden Flora Ed Cttee, European Garden Flora Volume: 1,
Pteridophyta; Gymnospermae, Angiospermae - Alismataceae to
Iridaceae. ISBN: 0-521-24859-0 [hard cover] Price: GBP 100.00
- US$150.00 Published: 22 May 1986
Volume: 2, Juncaceae to Orchidaceae. ISBN: 0-521-25864-2 [hard
cover] Price: GBP 80.00 - US$110.00 Published: 15 March 1984
Volume: 3, Casuarinaceae to Aristolochiaceae. ISBN: 0-521-36171-
0 [hard cover] Price: GBP 100.00 - US$160.00 Published: 27
Volume: 4, Dilleniaceae to Leguminosae. ISBN: 0-521-42095-4
[hard cover] Price: GBP 110.00 - US$170.00 Published: 6 July
Volume: 5, Dicotyledons (Part III): Limnanthaceae to Oleaceae.
ISBN: 0-521-42096-2 [hard cover] Price: GBP 110.00 -
Volume: 6, Dicotyledons, Longaniaceae to Compositae ISBN: 0-521-
42097-0 [hard cover] Price: GBP 110.00 - US$175.00 Published:
2 November 2000
European Garden Flora 6 volume set ISBN: 0-521-79146-4 [hard
cover] Price: GBP 500.00 (not offered in the US catalogue)
Published: 23 November 2000
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