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BEN # 269

Adolf Ceska aceska at victoria.tc.ca
Sat Jun 2 09:35:26 EST 2001

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No. 269                              June 2, 2001

aceska at victoria.tc.ca                Victoria, B.C.
 Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2

From: Michael J. Oldham [michael.oldham at mnr.gov.on.ca]

While  attending  the  Committee  on  the  Status  of Endangered
Wildlife in Canada  (COSEWIC)  meeting  in  early  May  2001  at
Osoyoos,  British  Columbia, I encountered a roadside population
of Hard Grass (_Sclerochloa dura_ (L.)  Beauv.;  Poaceae).  Hard
Grass  has  not  been  previously reported from British Columbia
(Hubbard 1969, Taylor and MacBryde 1977, Scoggan 1978,  Branden-
burg et al. 1991, Douglas et al. 1994, Kartesz and Meacham 1999,
G.W. Douglas pers. comm. 2001).

Hard  Grass  is a small, early flowering, annual, European grass
of  open  disturbed  areas  such  as   roadsides,   campgrounds,
playgrounds,  athletic fields, and fairgrounds. It is widespread
but local in the United States (Brandenburg et al. 1991) and  is
apparently  expanding its range in the U.S. midwest (A.W. Cusick
pers. comm. 1999; R.K. Rabeler pers. comm. 2000).  Elsewhere  in
Canada  _Sclerochloa dura_ is known only from two collections in
southwestern Ontario (M.J. Oldham 19674 (DAO, MICH,  NHIC  [her-
barium  of  the Natural Heritage Information Centre], TRT, WAT),
20 May 1997, Ridgetown Fairground, Kent County, 42 deg. 26'  50"
N,  81  deg.  52'  40"  W; M.J. Oldham & A.W. Cusick 19702 (DAO,
MICH, TRTE), 22 May 1997, Brigden Fairground, Lambton County, 42
deg. 48' 20" N, 82 deg. 16' 50" W), although  it  has  not  been
formally  reported from the Ontario flora (Morton and Venn 1990,
Newmaster et al. 1998).

In Osoyoos, British Columbia, _Sclerochloa dura_ was found on  a
disturbed  gravel  roadside near the Best Western Motel, but was
not seen elsewhere along roadsides or in other disturbed  ground
in  or  near Osoyoos. About 20 _Sclerochloa_ plants were encoun-
tered on 2 May 2001, growing with _Poa annua_ (Annual Bluegrass)
and _P. bulbosa_ (Bulbous  Bluegrass).  Voucher  specimens  were
collected  (M.J.  Oldham  25260)  and  will be deposited at DAO,
MICH, and UBC.

_Sclerochloa dura_ is superficially similar to and  often  grows
with  _Poa  annua_.  Both species flower relatively early in the
year and can be distinguished by their inflorescences, which  in
_Sclerochloa_ are distinctly one-sided, quite unlike the more or
less symmetric ones of _P. annua_. The branches of _S. dura_ are
ascending  to prostrate, forming clumps to 12 cm wide. A techni-
cal description and illustrations can be found in Brandenburg et
al. (1996).

Hard Grass will probably be found elsewhere in southern  British
Columbia  in  open,  disturbed sites. It has been known from ad-
jacent Washington state since at least 1932, although  not  from
any  counties  bordering  British  Columbia  (Brandenburg et al.

Acknowledgements: George Douglas provided confirmation that Hard
Grass is new to British Columbia, and Allison Cusick and Richard
Rabeler provided  useful  information  and  discussions  on  the


Brandenburg, D.M., J.R. Estes & J.W. Thieret. 1991. Hard Grass
   (_Sclerochloa dura_, Poaceae) in the United States. Sida
Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley & D. Meidinger (editors). 1994. The
   Vascular Plants of British Columbia. Part 4 --
   Monocotyledons. Special Report Series 4, Ministry of Forests
   Research Program, Victoria, B.C. 257 p.
Hubbard, W.A. 1969. The Grasses of British Columbia. Handbook
   No. 9, British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria. 205 p.
Kartesz, J.T. & C.A. Meacham. 1999. Synthesis of the North
   American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden,
   Chapel Hill, NC. CD ROM.
Morton, J.K. & J.M. Venn. 1990. A Checklist of the Flora of
   Ontario Vascular Plants. University of Waterloo Biology
   Series No. 34, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario. 218
Newmaster, S.G., A. Lehela, P.W.C. Uhlig, S. McMurray & M.J.
   Oldham. 1998. Ontario Plant List. Forest Research Information
   Paper No. 123, Ontario Forest Research Institute, Ontario
   Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. 550
   p. + appendices.
Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. Part 2: Pteridophyta,
   Gymnospermae, Monocotyledoneae. National Museum of Natural
   Sciences Publications in Botany 7(2): 93-545.
Taylor, R.L. & B. MacBryde. 1977. Vascular Plants of British
   Columbia: A Descriptive Resource Inventory. Technical Bul-
   letin No. 4, University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver,
   B.C. 754 p.

Michael  J. Oldham, Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 7000, 300 Water  Street,
Peterborough, Ontario, Canada K9J 8M5

From:  Art  Guppy,  4704 Sooke Road, Victoria, British Columbia,
   Canada V9C 4B9

_Castilleja  levisecta_  (Scrophulariaceae)  may  well  be   the
easiest  of  all  members of that genus to grow in a garden [see
BEN # 156 and BEN # 158].  Plants that have been grown from seed 
can be quickly increased by use of cuttings.

Like many _Castilleja_, this species produces  many  shots  near
ground level starting in the fall. By late February these shoots
are  large  enough  to  use  as cuttings and generally the plant
produces such a redundancy of these shoots that  a  few  can  be
taken without harm to the plant.

Before collecting the cuttings, prepare the selected host plants
by  using  a  narrow trowel to dig holes close to the host roots
and fill holes with sand.  Work  quickly  after  collecting  the
cuttings  to  avoid letting them wilt. Insert one or two in each
sand-filled hole and water them in. Improvise a  cloche  with  a
small  ventilation  hole  to  prevent  wilting and provide shade
until the cuttings are  rooted  and  growing.  Water  frequently
during the first summer.

_Eriophyllum  lanatum_  is  a good natural host. _Symphoricarpos
mollis_ is also a good host, though is not known to be a host in
nature. Other hosts may also produce good results. A small shoot
of _Castilleja levisecta_ placed near the roots of  a  plant  of
_Artemisia  stelleriana_ (native to sand benches on the coast of
northeast Asia) about March 1, 2000 had grown by May, 2001  into
a  very  large  plant with 32 large flowering branches. However,
this may not be a good pairing as the _Artemisia_ now looks very

From: Adolf & Oldriska Ceska c/o [aceska at victoria.tc.ca]

_Isoetes minima_ was described from a single collection made  by
Wilhelm  Suksdorf  from  Spangle  near  Spokane,  WA,  and until
recently, the only authentic material of this taxon has been the
type specimen. On the same collecting trip,  Suksdorf  collected
copious material of _Isoetes howellii_ that looked superficially
the  same  as  the  type  of  _I. minima_. Based on this limited
material, N.E. Pfeiffer reduced _I. minima_ into  a  variety  of
_I. howellii_.

The  Flora of North America followed Pfeiffer and redefined this
variety to include any small plants of _I. howellii_ with  small
megaspores.  Several  years ago, we found several populations of
_I. minima_ in Wenatchee Mountains, WA, and in 1996 this species
was also found in south-central British  Columbia.  The  species
can be considered rare in British Columbia and Washington.

_Isoetes  minima_  differs  from  _I. howellii_ by having small,
spiny megaspores and by sporangia that  completely  lack  velum.
Megaspores of _Isoetes howellii_ have low ridges and its sporan-
gia have partial velum.

Ecologically,  it  occupies  the  most  extreme, driest habitats
among the western North American terrestrial _Isoetes_  species.
It  grows  in periodically wet depressions in _Artemisia triden-
tata_ sagebrush with  _Camassia  quamash_,  _Allium  douglasii_,
_Hesperochiron   pumilus_,   _Lewisia  pygmaea_,  and  _Floerkea
proserpinacoides_ as accompanying species.

Representative specimens (deposited in V - Royal British  Colum-
bia Museum, Victoria, BC, Canada):

Canada, British Columbia: Salmo; slopes above Highway # 3, 12 km
   west of Salmo on the way to Castlegar. 49 deg. 11.839' N. 117
   deg.  27.221'  W.  Habitat:  Seasonally wet depressions among
   rocky ledges. Growing with _Floerkea proserpinacoides_.  July
   5, 1996 Adolf & Oldriska Ceska AC# 30,000 SEM # 7170-7176

Canada,  British  Columbia:  Castlegar; "Lloyd's Meadows" 8.2 km
   west of Castlegar. UTM: 11U 443460 5460084 July 12, 1996 Hans
   Roemer HR# 96-164 SEM # 7177-7185

USA, Washington: Colockum Pass between Ellensberg and Wenatchee.
   Habitat: seasonally  wet  swales  in  _Artemisia  tridentata_
   shrub   steppe.  Growing  with  _Camassia  quamash_,  _Allium
   douglasii_, _Hesperochiron  pumilus_,  _Floerkea  proserpina-
   coides_,  _Claytonia nevadensis_, _Montia linearis_ etc. June
   30, 1985 Adolf & Oldriska Ceska AC# 19,754 SEM # 7186-7190

On June 22, 2001 we saw the following  populations  of  _Isoetes
minima_ at Colockum Pass (GPS Garmin II+, NAD83):

   47 deg. 08' 53.6" 120 deg. 19' 18.7"  about 30 plants
   47 deg. 11' 35.7" 120 deg. 16' 50.0"         3 plants
   47 deg. 11' 43.0" 120 deg. 16' 47.2"         2 plants
   47 deg. 11' 54.3" 120 deg. 16' 40.9"     > 200 plants

From: Anna Crewe c/o William Purvis [W.Purvis at nhm.ac.uk]

I  am  working  on  my  MSc  project (_Taxonomy of the Peltigera
section Polydactylon in the Azores_) with Dr William  Purvis  at
the Natural History Museum.

For  my  molecular  work I would greatly appreciate recent, air-
dried collections of the following species:
   _Peltigera venosa_ 
   _Peltigera hymenina_  
   _Peltigera  horizontalis_

Thanks very much for you help.

Anna Crewe c/o Dr. William Purvis
   Department of Botany
   The Natural History Museum
   Cromwell Road
   London SW7 5BD
   United Kingdom

From: Adolf Ceska [aceska at victoria.tc.ca]

Cullen,  J.  et  al.  [eds.] 2000. The European garden flora : A
   manual for the identification of plants cultivated in Europe,
   both out-of-doors and under glass. Volume VI: Loganiaceae  to
   Compositae.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge - New York
   - Sidney - ... xv + 739 p. ISBN  0-521-42097-0  [hard  cover]
   Price: US$ 175.00

   Ordering information:
   USA: Cambridge University Press, North American Branch
   40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211  USA
   Tel.: 212-924-3900, Fax:  212-691-3239
   Email: information at cup.org -
   web site: http://www.cup.org/
   UK web site: http://www.cambridge.org

This  is  the  final, sixth volume that complete this monumental
research. The project was sponsored by the  Royal  Horticultural
Society,  the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh, and the Stanley
Smith Horticultural Trust. It officially started in 1979 by  the
British  botanists  who had been on the Flora Europaea editorial
team. The first volume appeared in 1984 and this last volume  in
2000, only one year later than originally planned.

The  sixth volume covers 38 families and over 190 genera of most
sympetalous dicot families. It contains keys  to  the  families,
genera and species of the covered plants, their descriptions and
information  on  their  distribution and notes on their taxonomy
and nomenclature. The illustrations are sparse  (48  tables  in-
cluding  4  on  general  morphological terms), and when they are
included, they illustrate details for identification of selected
taxa (e.g.,  nutlets  of  Boraginaceae,  leaves  of  _Viburnum_,
etc.). The lack of illustrations is compensated by references to
illustrations  published  elsewhere,  and  the  reference to the
illustration immediately follows the species name and  synonymy.
Pertinent  taxonomical  literature  is cited for each family and

The  selection  of  species  in  floras  such  as  this  one  is
problematic  since  the  book  is  shooting  at a moving target.
Numerous seed collectors beat the tradition by  introducing  new
plants  into  cultivation,  as  well  as  seed exchanges between
botanical gardens and among members of horticultural  societies.
But  even  with  the chase for rarities, the basic assortment of
houseplants or plants in gardens remains essentially  the  same.
The  selection  of species in this book was based on "a compila-
tion of all European nursery catalogues,"  _The  Plant  Finder_,
_The  New  RHS  Dictionary  of  Gardening_  and many other basic
references. The  selection  is  quite  broad.  For  example,  58
species  of  _Penstemon_  (including the rare Columbia Gorge en-
demic _Penstemon barretiae_), 98 species of _Salvia_, 31 species
of _Veronica_, are included in the account.

The price is quite high at US$175.00, but the work is an  impor-
tant  reference to all interested in garden plants and plants in
cultivation. Quite a few  garden  plants  have  become  unwanted
invasive  species,  and  the  Flora  also serves as an essential
reference to those  who  are  interested  in  introductions  and
invasive plant species.

The earlier volumes are still available and are listed below. It
is  interesting  to  note  that  the  British  catalogue  of the
Cambridge University Press (http://www.cambridge.org) offers the
whole 6-volume set for a bargain price of  GBP  500.00,  whereas
the US branch (http://www.cup.org) does not mention this offer.

List of all six volumes of the _European Garden Flora_:

Eur  Garden  Flora  Ed  Cttee,  European Garden Flora Volume: 1,
   Pteridophyta; Gymnospermae, Angiospermae  -  Alismataceae  to
   Iridaceae. ISBN: 0-521-24859-0 [hard cover] Price: GBP 100.00
   - US$150.00 Published: 22 May 1986

Volume:  2,  Juncaceae to Orchidaceae. ISBN: 0-521-25864-2 [hard
   cover] Price: GBP 80.00 - US$110.00 Published: 15 March 1984

Volume: 3, Casuarinaceae to Aristolochiaceae. ISBN: 0-521-36171-
   0 [hard cover] Price: GBP 100.00 -  US$160.00  Published:  27
   July 1989

Volume:  4,  Dilleniaceae  to  Leguminosae.  ISBN: 0-521-42095-4
   [hard cover] Price: GBP 110.00 - US$170.00 Published: 6  July

Volume:  5,  Dicotyledons (Part III): Limnanthaceae to Oleaceae.
   ISBN:  0-521-42096-2  [hard  cover]  Price:  GBP   110.00   -

Volume: 6, Dicotyledons, Longaniaceae to Compositae ISBN: 0-521-
   42097-0 [hard cover] Price: GBP 110.00 - US$175.00 Published:
   2 November 2000

European  Garden  Flora  6  volume set ISBN: 0-521-79146-4 [hard
   cover] Price: GBP 500.00 (not offered in  the  US  catalogue)
   Published: 23 November 2000

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