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BEN # 183

Adolf Ceska aceska at CUE.BC.CA
Thu Feb 12 04:14:27 EST 1998

BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             ISSN 1188-603X
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BBBBB    EEEEE    NN N N             BOTANICAL
BB   B   EE       NN  NN             ELECTRONIC
BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             NEWS

No. 183                              February 12, 1998

aceska at victoria.tc.ca                Victoria, B.C.
 Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2


Where:  University of Victoria, Elliot Lecture Wing 
When: Saturday March 7 from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.


   Merv Wilkinson: Theory and Practice of Sustainable Forestry
   Andy MacKinnon: Biodiversity in B.C. Ecosystems
   Hilary Stewart: Cedar - The Tree of Life
   Anna Roberts: Flora of the Chilcotin
   Nancy Turner: Cultural Perspectives on Native Plants
   Art Kruckeberg: Use of Native Plants in Landscaping and
            Habitat Restoration

Displays, workshops, plant sale, etc.

Tickets are $15.00 at the door/ $8.00 Students and un-waged,  or
   $12.00  in  advance at The Field Naturalist, Swan Lake Nature
   House, and Dig This.

For more information contact
  Luke Chandler <lchandle at uvic.ca>
  Jennifer Eakins <jeakins at uvic.ca> or
  Jennifer Price <jprice at uvic.ca>

From: Alfred Wiedemann <wiedemaa at elwha.evergreen.edu>

Ammophila arenaria was introduced to the  west  coast  of  North
America  in  l868  to stabilize dunes in the San Francisco area.
The introduction came from Australia where it had  been  earlier
introduced  from  Europe. Because of its ability to thrive under
conditions of high  wind  and  sand  burial,  the  grass  spread
rapidly, both by natural means and through its steadily increas-
ing use in sand stabilization projects.

One  result of the establishment and spread of Ammophila was the
development, by about l950, of a massive foredune  system  along
most  of  the  dune  areas  of  the Pacific Northwest coast. The
vegetation  of  existing  foredunes  was  overwhelmed  and   the
foredunes  built  to  a  much  larger size, while on the central
Oregon coast, where previously there had been no  foredune,  one
of massive proportions came into existence.

Large  areas of active dunes were also stabilized through exten-
sive planting programs. Examples include the Clatsop  Plains  at
the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  River  in Oregon where decades of
grazing and cultivation of the dune field resulted in  extensive
dune  rejuvenation (l940's), and the active dune fields south of
Siuslaw River at Florence,  Oregon  (l950's).  A  congener,  Am-
mophila  breviligulata  Fern.,  native to the east coast and the
Great Lakes Region, had been used on the Clatsop Plains and  for
stabilization  plantings on a few areas of the Washington coast.
It is  virtually  indistinguishable  from  A.  arenaria  in  its
general morphology and growth habits.

A  long-term  result  of  this  domination by a single, vigorous
species with 100% ground cover has been the suppression of  many
of  the  numerous native, dune-building species: Elymus (Leymus)
mollis, Abronia latifolia, Covolvulus  (Calystegia)  soldanella,
Carex  macrocephala, Glehnia leiocarpa, Lathyrus littoralis, Poa
macrantha, and others.  None  are  immediately  threatened  with
extinction  (except, perhaps, Abronia umbellata, at least in the
northwest) but they are much less seen  than  in  former  times.
Ammophila  is  also seen by some to be a long-term threat to the
scenic and recreational values of the extensive  Oregon  coastal
dune fields. This is debatable.

The  species  is  uniquely  well-adapted  to  areas  where large
amounts of sand are moved by strong,  unidirectional  winds.  It
thrives  on  burial,  which is necessary for vigorous growth and
flowering. Where burial ceases, plant cover is reduced  and  the
plant  eventually  dies.  Studies  in  Holland suggest that this
senescence and eventual death  may  be  due  to  plant-parasitic
nematodes  that  reduce  root  length  and  root hair formation.
Continuous sand burial stimulates new root production,  enabling
vigorous growth to continue.

Ammophila  achieves dominance by the production of great numbers
of vertical tillers and culms, resulting in heavy foliage cover.
Elymus mollis, the principle native  dune-building  grass,  puts
primary  growth  energy  into horizontal rhizome production with
vertical shoots more spaced, creating a more open cover in which
other species can colonize. On  the  coastal  dunes  of  western
Europe,  where it is native, Ammophila does not achieve the same
overwhelming dominance. This may be due to  wind  regime,  plant
competitors, soils, or other factors.

The  species is widespread along the coast of western Europe and
around the Mediterranean Sea, between approximately Latitude 30N
to 60N. It has been  introduced  into  virtually  every  British
colonial  settlement  within  its  latitudinal  tolerance range,
including southeast and southwest Australia, New Zealand,  South
Africa,  the  Falkland  Islands, and Norfolk Island. It has been
planted widely in Japan and has been reported from Argentina and
Chile. In the southern hemisphere its  northern  limits  lie  at
Latitude  30S  to  32S. Observations at these latitudes (Sydney,
Perth, Port Elizabeth, Capetown) indicate generally poor  growth
and sparse flowering.

In  response  to concerns about scenic landscape destruction and
native plant extinction, there  has  been  experimentation  with
various  methods  to control or eradicate Ammophila. None (burn-
ing, covering, mowing, salting, poisoning) has proved  effective
and/or  practical.  Digging is effective, but very expensive. At
the Lanphere-Christensen Dunes Preserve on the northern Califor-
nia coast (Arcata) a program was initiated  in  l992  to  remove
Ammophila,  by  digging, from 4 ha of foredune. The cost in l994
was $20,000/ha.

Recent studies by the  author,  based  on  a  30-year  transect,
indicate  that  on  the  "back  crests"  and  lee  slopes of the
foredune it is likely that Ammophila will eventually be replaced
by native shrub  and  tree  species.  The  native  sand  pioneer
species  will  find  refuge  in blowouts occurring away from the
beach areas, while  Ammophila  will  continue  to  dominate  the
windward foredune slopes and foredune crest blowouts.

Further reading:

Cooper,  W.S. l958. Coastal sand dunes of Washington and Oregon.
   Geological Society of America. Memoir 72.
Huiskes, A.H.L. 1979. Biological flora  of  the  British  Isles.
   Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link. Journal of Ecology 67: 363-382.
Pavlik,  B.M.  l983.  Nutrient and productivity relations of the
   dunegrasses,  Ammophila  arenaria  and  Elymus  mollis.  III.
   Spatial aspects of clonal expansion with reference to rhizome
   growth  and  the  dispersal  of  buds. Bulletin of the Torrey
   Botanical Club 110(3): 271-279
Wiedemann, Alfred M.  &  Andrea  Pickart.  l996.  The  Ammophila
   problem  on  the  Northwest Coast of North America. Landscape
   and Urban Planning 34(l966): 287-299.

From: Murray Thomas Arthur <murrayta at ucsu.Colorado.edu>

This is the list of species that I am trying to collect informa-
tion on. I am collecting information on  control  methods  (i.e.
biological,  chemical,  cutting,  pulling,  burning,  etc.)  and
management programs that have worked or failed. My  goal  is  to
find  the most environmentally sensitive management program that
provides effective control of the following weeds:

Russian knapweed (Centaurea repens)
Diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)
Yellow toadflax  (Linaria vulgaris)
Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica)

If you have any information that seems relevant  please  contact

   Thomas Murray
   936 13th St.
   Boulder CO. 80302
   phone: (303) 449-4939
   e-mail: murrayta at ucsu.colorado.edu


Munro, D.B. & E. Small. 1997. Vegetables of Canada. NRC Research
   Press,  Ottawa. xvii + 417 p. ISBN 0-660-16708-5 [hard cover]
   Cost: CDN $69.95 (Canada), US$69.95 (other countries)

   Order from: Monograph Orders,
   NRC  Research  Press,  M-55,
   National Research Council Canada
   Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0R6
   Phone: 613-993-0151, Fax: 613-952-7656
   e-mail: research.journals at nrc.ca
   web: http://www.nrc.ca/cisti/journals/mgraphs.html

   Authorized distributor (USA):
   Aubrey Books International Ltd.
   Telephone: 301-587-3950
   e-mail: aubrey at access.digex.com
   Note: Also issued in French  under  title:  "Les  legumes  du

This  book  is  a  comprehensive  reference  guide  to  Canadian
vegetables. It covers both commercial and home garden crops  and
includes all of the major, minor, and potentially new vegetables
of   Canada.   The   book  provides  information  on  about  100
vegetables. For each vegetable the authors  discuss  the  names,
description  and  taxonomy, uses, importance, cultivation notes,
etc. The bibliography contains over 600 references. A long  list
of  vegetable-oriented web sites is given for the Internet brow-

The "Vegetables of Canada"  is  a  sibling  publication  to  the
"Culinary  herbs"  (see  BEN  # 180). The format is similar, al-
though the typography of the "Culinary herbs" is more  pleasing.
The  illustrations  of the vegetables are taken over from older,
copyright-free publications  (like  many  illustrations  in  the
"Culinary  herbs"),  but they are used more as a clip-art rather
than  really  functional  full  illustrations.  There  are  only
several  original  drawings (e.g., Oriental cabbages, difference
between rutabaga & turnip, insect-resistant potato)  that  gives
more  information and detail and I wish there were more of those
in this book.

The book is a good reference to the vegetables cultivated  in  a
temperate climate and it is an important addition to the litera-
ture on economic plants.

A  short  chapter  of  "Vegetables  of  Canada" is available for
viewing at the NRC Research Press Web site:


Peterson, E.B., N.M. Peterson,  G.F.  Weetman,  &  P.J.  Martin.
   1997. Ecology and management of Sitka spruce, emphasizing its
   natural  range  in  British  Columbia.  University of British
   Columbia Press, Vancouver. xiii + 336 p.  ISBN  0-7748-0561-7
   [hard cover] Cost: CDN$75.00

   Ordering information:
   UBC Press, University of British Columbia
   6344 Memorial Road, Vancouver, B.C.  Canada  V6T 1Z2
   Phone: 604-822-5959  Fax: 800-668-0821
   E-mail: orders at ubcpress.ubc.ca

Sitka  spruce (Picea sitchensis) is an important commercial tree
of the Pacific Northwest coastal forests. This publication deals
with the biology, ecology  and  silvicultural  aspects  of  this
species.  The  authors  deal  in depth with the ecology of Sitka
spruce, with the response of  the  tree  to  certain  ecological
factors,  and with its reproductive biology. In the main chapter
the authors discuss silvicultural  questions  such  as  original
plantation  spacing,  juvenile  spacing,  and  fertilization  to
shorten the rotation  period  of  second-growth  coastal  spruce
stands.  The  book  is based on a thorough literature survey and
gives over 830 references, with a high proportion of publication
published after 1990. This  is  an  important  book  for  anyone
interested  in  the  ecology,  biology and silviculture of Sitka


Knobloch,  I.  1995.  Hybrids  and  hybrid  derivatives  in  the
   pteridophytes.  Michigan  State University, East Lansing. 102
   p. spiral bound.

   Ordering information: Send your orders to MSU  Museum  Store,
   Michigan  State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1045 along
   with a check for US$10.00 plus U.S. postage  $2.00  or  $3.50

This is a new edition of the classical reference on pteridophyte
hybrids.  This  edition  lists  about  1,100  names  related  to
pteridophyte hybridity backed by almost 700 references.

Submissions, subscriptions, etc.:  aceska at victoria.tc.ca
BEN is archived at   http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/ben/

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