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BEN # 88

Adolf Ceska aceska at CUE.BC.CA
Fri Jan 13 04:28:07 EST 1995


BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             ISSN 1188-603X
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BBBBB    EEEEE    NN N N             BOTANICAL
BB   B   EE       NN  NN             ELECTRONIC
BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             NEWS

No. 88                               January 13, 1995

aceska at freenet.victoria.bc.ca        Victoria, B.C.
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 Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2
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SENIOR WATERSHED ECOLOGIST FOR THE CITY OF SEATTLE, WA
From: Jim Erckmann <erckmann at CYBERSPACE.COM> [abbrev.]

Supervise  and  lead biology professionals to plan and implement
programs in forest and watershed ecology  for  City  of  Seattle
Water  Department.  Develop  cooperative  research  programs and
environmental  plans  with  universities,  Indian  tribes,   and
agencies.  Work  with  multidisciplinary  staff to design timber
sales and create long-term programs  to  protect,  rehabilitate,
and restore aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

Requires  a  B.S. in natural sciences plus 5 years of experience
in a related field involving developing, conducting, and  super-
vising  field  monitoring,  research,  and habitat management in
wildlife biology, fisheries, or ecology. Related M.S.  or  Ph.D.
involving  research  is preferred and may substitute for 3 years
of experience. Salary $3,787/month. Send your resume by  January
24, 1995, to S. Bergstrand, Seattle Personnel Dept., 1292 Dexter
Horton Building, Seattle, WA, U.S.A., 98104-1793. AA/EOE.


THE VENUS FLYTRAP TRADE IN NORTH AND SOUTH CAROLINA
From: TRAFFIC Bulletin 13(2): 68-72.
        (Article by Jane C. MacKnight & Vonda Frantz - abbrev.)

The  Venus Flytrap is a sole representative of the genus Dionaea
(its Latin  name  is  D.  muscipula  Ellis),  a  member  of  the
Droseraceae  family  which  contains  Sundew (Drosera - about 80
spp.), Waterwheel (Aldrovanda - 1 sp.),  and  Portuguese  Sundew
(Drosophyllum - 1 sp.).

Dionaea  muscipula is endemic to a 320-km strip of coastal plain
in southeastern North Carolina and northeastern  South  Carolina
where  the  sandy-peaty,  acidic, low-nutrient soils remain wet.
Populations decline rapidly when overgrown by shrubs and  taller
plants.  Periodic  fires  are  characteristic  of  Venus Flytrap
habitat.  Unless  other  management  techniques  are   employed,
drainage  or  suppression of fires will cause extirpation of the
habitat and Venus Flytrap populations.

The Venus Flytrap is traded as a novelty plant in North America,
Europe and Asia. In Germany, the  plants  are  also  used  in  a
medicine,  Carnivora,  which  is  sold  as  a claimed remedy for
cancer and AIDS (Ref.: Walker, M. 1991. The Carnivora  cure  for
cancer,  AIDS,  and other pathologies. - Townsend Newsletter for
Doctors. Stamford, CT, June).

The Venus Flytrap is propagated in  both  the  USA  and  Europe.
Methods  of propagation - by division, tissue culture, leaf-base
culture, from leaf blades or by seeds - are relatively easy  and
require  between  one  and three years for the plants to reach a
marketable size.

No commercial propagation or trade in Venus  Flytrap  was  iden-
tified in South Carolina. Nine nurseries in North Carolina found
to  trade  in  Venus  Flytrap  were  visited  or  interviewed by
telephone. Only one nursery was found to conduct true artificial
propagation, while  others  either  propagate  by  division  and
continually replenish stock with wild plants or rely entirely on
wild-collected plants.

Both South and North Carolina have taken measures to protect the
species.  The  laws  prohibit  collection  of Venus Flytrap from
public lands, or from private lands without  the  permission  of
the  landowner. The listing of the Venus Flytrap in CITES Appen-
dix II became effective on 11 June 1992 and requires  documenta-
tion  for  all  international  exports and re-exports. All wild-
collected plants destined for export require export permits  and
artificially-propagated  plants require a certificate of artifi-
cial propagation.

Small-scale collecting may occur in South Carolina,  but  it  is
not believed to be a serious problem. Illegal collection of wild
plants  in  North  Carolina  is  frequent, widespread and large-
scale. The volume of Venus Flytraps collected annually in  North
Carolina may be as high as several hundred thousand plants. When
the habitat of Venus Flytrap was abundant, the impact of collec-
tion  was  probably negligible. But the effects of development -
bulldozing and paving of habitat, drainage of large  tracks  for
timber  extraction,  and  fire suppression - have diminished the
amount of habitat, and the impact of  collection  is  magnified.
The  decrease  in collecting sites causes each remaining site to
be more heavily collected.

Recommendations. 
The  long-term  preservation of the Venus Flytrap  will require 
a series of measures:
1) Reduce and control collection of wild plants.
2) Enforce state regulations and CITES.
3) Establish more protected areas.


THE NEXT ISSUE OF BEN

will bring an article  on  Plenterung,  one  form  of  selective
logging,  written  exclusively  for  BEN  by  Prof.Dr. Rudolf W.
Becking.



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