Some time ago, a friend told me the anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon)
caterpillars he fed fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) from certain localities
near heavily traveled roads did not do well on it. If he collected
foliage elsewhere, there was much less of a problem. The specimens
ivolved were collected and raised in the eastern part of the Los Angeles
metropolitan area and seemed to be affected to a greater extent than
other species. Is carbon monoxide the problem or is there some other
fuel consumption by-product accumulating in the foliage?
The other day, another friend told me he saw a very fresh adult of the same
species in the immediate vicinity of a fennel plant in downtown Los
Angeles (**very smoggy!!**) - and looking for oviposition sites.
Pierre Plauzoles ae779 at lafn.org
Canoga Park, California