The following is an announcement of an International Conference on
Biological Diversity, to be held in Tucson, Arizona, in March 1994. All
interested persons are welcomed to register. Please feel free to circulate
this announcement to other usegroups or individuals that might be
Program and Registration
EXPLORING THE COMPLEXITIES
An International Conference
March 25, 26, & 27, 1994
The University of
In Conjunction with
National Energy Law & Policy Institute
University of Tulsa College of Law
Deadline for Registration February 15, 1994
Lakshman D. Guruswamy
Director, National Energy Law and Policy Institute
Professor of Law, University of Tulsa
College of Law
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104, U.S.A.
Tel: 1-918-631-2431; Fax: 1-918-631-3556
e-mail: law_ldg at vax1.utulsa.edu
The Local Organizing Committee
Hans Bohnert (Co-Director)
Kathleen Maloney-Dunn (Coordinator)
Please Address All Correspondence to:
The University of Arizona
Biosciences West 516
Tucson, Arizona 85721 U.S.A.
Tel: 1-602-621-7961; Fax: 1-602-621-9288
e-mail: bohnert at biosci.arizona.edu
What Is Biological Diversity?
"Biological diversity refers to the variety and variability among
living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they
occur. Diversity can be defines as the number of different items
and their relative frequency. For biological diversity, these
items are organized at many levels, ranging from complete
ecosystems to the chemical structures that are the molecular
basis of heredity. Thus, the term encompasses different
ecosystems, species, genes, and their relative abundance."
Biodiversity diversity possesses intrinsic value, in addition to
supporting human life which depends on the Earth's biological
resources. Our material well-being and prosperity depend on
biological diversity, the ultimate source of much of our food,
shelter, clothing, and medicine. Moreover, the protection of
biological diversity addresses the continuation of our cultural,
psychological, and spiritual health.
The goal of the Conference on Biological Diversity is to explore,
within an interdisciplinary framework, available national,
transnational, and international options for solving the critical
global problems arising from the loss of biological diversity.
The conference will probe the following areas: What is
biological diversity? Is the loss of biological diversity a
problem? What scientific measures can be employed to stem the
loss? What socio-political measures can be enacted to manage the
loss? Will property rights protect biological diversity?
Particular emphasis will be given to the nature and extent of the
interface between intellectual property rights and biological
In papers submitted in advance of the conference, keynote
speakers will provide an overview of major issues and
controversies falling within their designated subject area.
These areas will be covered in greater depth in parallel
discussion sessions. Invited discussants will raise additional
issues, offer different viewpoints, and guide the discussions.
Conference registrants are encouraged to indicate if they are
willing to make a contribution at the breakout discussion
THE CONFERENCE WILL ADDRESS:
WHAT SCIENTIFIC MEASURES ARE CAPABLE OF REVERSING THE POSSIBLE
DESTRUCTION OF BIODIVERSITY?
Scientists from a variety of disciplines have suggested ways to
respond to the loss of genetic and biological diversity. The
conference will explore some of these possible responses,
including cataloguing, biotechnology, and changing land-use
WHAT SOCIO-POLITICAL MEASURES ARE CAPABLE OF REVERSING THE
POSSIBLE DESTRUCTION OF BIODIVERSITY?
The gene-rich centers of biodiversity such as rainforests, coral
reefs, and wetlands are frequently located in tropical regions.
The countries in these regions are often economically depressed,
and as a result, may have few resources or incentives to preserve
their biota. Historically, international economic markets have
provided disincentives for preservation. What are the
DO PROPERTY RIGHTS PROTECT BIODIVERSITY?
Property rights are inextricably woven into the current discourse
on the protection of biodiversity. The conference will seek to
clarify relevant issues on the nature of ownership and patent
Thursday, March 24, 1994
3:00-9:00 p.m. Registration at the Westward Look Resort
(continued on Friday morning)
Friday, March 25, 1994
10:30-11:30 a.m. Invited Plenary address
Secretary Bruce Babbitt,
U.S. Department of the Interior
11:30-1:00 p.m. Lunch
1:30-2:30 p.m. Keynote Speaker-Session 1
Biological Diversity:A Scientific
Peter Raven*, Director,
Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis,
2:30-3:00 p.m. Break
3:00-6:45 p.m. Concurrent Discussion Sessions
A. How Serious is the Loss of Biodiversity:
B. What are the Scientific Measures Capable of Reducing or
Alleviating the Loss of Biodiversity?
3:00-3:45 p.m. A. Loss Estimates are Vastly Exaggerated-Policy
Should Not be Based on Such Exaggeration.
Julian Simon, Professor of Business
Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
B. Can Science Help Identify Where to Put
Limited Financial Resources?
Francesca Grifo*, Program Director
International Cooperative Biodiversity Group
Fogarty International Center, National
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
3:45-4:00 p.m. Break
4:00-4:45 A. Loss Estimates are Not Exaggerated-Loss of
Species of this Magnitude is and Will
Continue to be a Problem
Thomas E. Lovejoy, Assistant Secretary of
Environmental and External Affairs
The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
B. Can Genetic Engineering of Plants and Animals
Counteract the Loss of Biodiversity?
Robert Fraley*, Director, Biotechnology
Research Unit Monsanto Corporation, St.
5:00-5:45 A. Loss Estimates May be Exaggerated-at Least in
Ariel E. Lugo*, Institute of Tropical
Forestry, U.S. Forest Service, Puerto Rico
B. How Can Land Use Practices Facilitate the
Maintenance of Biological Diversity? What is
the Role of Ecological Restoration?
Laura Jackson*, Professor, Department of
Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar
6:00-6:45 A. Loss of Biological Diversity has Ethical
Bryan Norton*, Professor, School of Public
Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology,
B. A Summary of Scientific Measures
Robert Watson*, Associate Director,
Office of Science and Technology Policy
The White House, Washington, D.C.
7:00-8:30 p.m. Dinner
Reception sponsored by the University of
Saturday, March 26, 1994
7:30-8:45 a.m. Breakfast
9:00-10:00 a.m. Keynote Speaker-Session 2
Reversing the Loss of Biodiversity:
Socio-political Measures and
Jeffrey McNeely, *Chief Biodiversity
Officer, IUCN, Geneva, Switzerland
10:15-3:45 p.m. Concurrent Discussion Sessions
10:15-11:00 A. International Measures
An Overview of International Measures
Walter V. Reid*, Vice President for Program
World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
B. Transnational & National Initiatives
Elver Umana, Former Vice-Minister for
Natural Resources, Currently at INCAO,
11:15-Noon A. The Need for International Obligations
Governing Biodiversity: The Biodiversity
Lakshman Guruswamy*, Director
National Energy Law & Policy Institute
University of Tulsa, Oklahoma
B. Development Organizations and Biodiversity
James Gustav Speth, Director U.N. Development
Program, New York
12:00-2:00 p.m. Lunch
2:00-2:45 p.m. A. Rights of Indigenous People & Biodiversity
Jim Anaya*, Professor of Law
University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
B. Private Enterprise and Biodiversity
Ana Sittenfeld*, Director of Biodiversity
Prospecting, INBIO, Santo Domingo, Costa Rica
2:45-3:00 p.m. Break
3:00-3:45 p.m. A. Development and Biodiversity
Department of Economics, Stanford University
B. Local and National Initiatives
Elinor Ostrom*, Arthur F. Bentley Professor
of Political Science, Department of Political
Science, Indiana University, Bloomington,
3:45-4:00 p.m. Break
4:00-5:00 p.m. Keynote Speaker-Session 3
Property Rights, Public Goods, & the Earth's
Christopher Stone*, Ray P. Crocker Professor
of Law, Law Center, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California
5:15-6:45 p.m. Discussion Session
Commercial Exploitation of Biodiversity
Jeff Kushan*, Legislative & International
Intellectual Property Specialist
Patent and Trademark Office
U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.
Property Rights and Patents in Different
Countries - How to Share the Benefits?
Center for International Environmental Law
(CIEL), Washington, D.C.
7:15-9:00 p.m. Dinner
Sunday, March 27, 1994
7:00-8:15 a.m. Breakfast
8:30-Noon Concurrent Discussion Sessions
A Is there a Right to Exploit Biodiversity for
B. How Should Intellectual Property Rights Be
Created, Distributed, and Exercised?
C. Existing Models/Mechanisms for Implementing
8:30-9:15 A. A Philosophical View
Mark Sagoff*, Director
The Institute for Philosophy and Public
Policy, University of Maryland, College Park,
B. The Commercialization of Indigenous Genetic
Resources: Values, Institutions, and
R. David Simpson*, Roger A. Sedjo*, and John
W. Reid*, Resources for the Future,
C. Countries and Companies
Pamela Demain*, Senior Director of Corporate
Licensing, Merck & Company, Whitehouse
Station, New Jersey
9:15-9:30 a.m. Break
9:30-10:15 A. Legal Aspects
Lecturer in Law and Fellow of Emmanuel
College, Cambridge University, Cambridge,
B. Maintaining Incentives for Research and
Gary Toennisson*, Director
International Rice Research Project
The Rockefeller Foundation, New York
C. Non-governmental Organizations: Compensating
Local Communities for Conserving Biodiversity
Anil Gupta*, Chair
Center for Educational Innovation
Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
10:15-Open Conference Summary
* Indicates confirmed speakers
To register, please mail by February 15, 1994
To: Phone: U.S. 1-602-621-7961
The University of Arizona Fax: U.S. 1-602-621-9288
Biosciences West 516
Tucson, Arizona 85721 U.S.A.
E-mail:bohnert at biosci.arizona.edu
(Please print clearly or type information; please indicate your
____ I am registering for the conference. (U.S. $_____ for _____
____ I would like to participate in Discussion Sessions on the
Full Name: _________________________________
(please put your name as you would like it to appear on
Method of Payment:
(U.S. $ only; please check one of the spaces below):
___ Check (please make payable to Biodiversity Conference,
___ University of Arizona)
___ Visa/Mastercard (Circle One)
Card Number __________________ Expiration Date ____
___ International Money Order
The conference fee for early registration (by February 15, 1994)
is $250 per person, thereafter $350. The conference fee for
participants from corporations is $950 (part of which will be
used to waive fees for qualifying participants from outside the
U.S.). This fee includes all conference sessions, the reception,
conference dinners on Friday and Saturday, two continental
breakfasts, and three lunches. For those attending from the
University of Arizona, a special fee of $50 is offered, but this
does not cover the reception and meals.
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Attendance at the conference will be governed by registration on
a "first-come, first-served" basis. About 200 invited national
and international policy-makers, biological and social
scientists, lawyers, ad representatives from industry and non-
governmental organizations will participate.
The conference will take place at the Westward Look Resort,
located on the northwest side of Tucson in the Santa Catalina
foothills, with spectacular views of the city and the mountains
of the Coronado National Forest. The Westward Look is spread
over 80 acres of beautifully landscaped grounds and offers all
the amenities of a modern resort as well as the ambiance of the
southwest. Please call the hotel direct at 1-800-722-2500 or 1-
602-297-1151 (fax: 1-602-742-1573) to register for your room.
Ask for the "Biodiversity Conference" rate. Wheelchair access to
the conference is provided.
Tucson International Airport is served by several airlines with
service from major cities, including New York, Chicago, Denver,
Dallas, Los Angeles, and Phoenix. Taxis or the 24-hour-Arizona
Stagecoach shuttle service (1-602-881-4111) can take you from
Tucson International Airport to the hotel. You may wish to pick
up a rental car at the airport. Call for advance reservations
with any national car rental company.
The proceedings of this conference will be published either as a
book or as a separate volume in a scholarly journal.
Tucson is a beautiful city and winter resort due to its temperate
climate, mountainous surroundings, and the rich cultural heritage
of the American Southwest. In the balmy days of March, one might
visit the forests of giant cactus at the Saguaro National
Monument, explore the water-filled desert oasis at Sabino Canyon
in the Coronado National Forest, or travel from Tucson's valley
floor (2,500 ft.) to the pine forest of Mt. Lemmon (9,000 ft.).
For those interested in the natural world, Tucson is home to the
internationally renowned "living" museum, the Arizona-Sonora
Desert Museum, described by The New York Times as "the most
distinctive zoo in the United States." For cultural attractions,
Tucson spans the centuries. Native American reservations adjoin
the city. From the Spanish Colonial era comes the San Xavier
Mission, an outstanding example of Spanish-American architecture.
Tucson is also a center for contemporary art, with a burgeoning
downtown arts district and symphony, theater, ballet, and opera
companies. Tucson offers the visitor a wide variety of
activities, and the conference will take place during the spring
season when the city comes most alive and the surrounding desert
is at its most beautiful.