Note: A printed copy of the following table, created by David Meinke,
was included in the recent postal mailing from the ABRC at Ohio State.
This table is now electronically available from the Arabidposis
Research Companion Gopher in the "Arabidopsis Genetic Maps and Tables"
folder. The information contained within this table has been
incorporated into the AAtDB database available via gopher and wais.
The next version of the Unix AAtDB database, release 1-4, will also
contain this information.
Special thanks go to David Meinke for volunteering to be the Genetics
Curator for Arabidopsis.
Overview of Mutant Gene Symbols of Arabidopsis thaliana
David W. Meinke, Curator
Phone: 405-744-6549; FAX: 405-744-7673
email: btnydwm at osucc.bitnet
The attached list presents a comprehensive summary of mutant gene
symbols currently being used in research with Arabidopsis thaliana.
This list is (hopefully) limited to mutants with viable seeds and
established phenotypes that have been examined in some detail.
Additional information on certain mutant phenotypes is given in
Reference laboratory refers to the individual(s) involved in the
initial identification or subsequent characterization of each class of
mutants. This reference is included to help locate individuals who
could provide further information on specific symbols.
This list does not include information on the total number of loci
given the same mutant gene symbol. For example, there are 250
distinct emb loci (emb1 to emb250) and one bio locus (bio1), but each
symbol is given a single line.
A separate list summarizing all well-characterized mutant loci by
symbol and number will need to be prepared in the future.
Note that in some cases on the attached list (*) the same gene symbol
has already been assigned to unrelated mutants. These conflicts will
need to be resolved to avoid further confusion in the literature.
Suggested Protocol for the Future:
Mutants should be characterized in some detail before a formal gene
symbol is chosen and published. This analysis should include
(whenever possible) mapping the chromosomal location of the mutant
Complementation tests should be performed with mutants that map to
similar regions and/or exhibit similar phenotypes to ensure that the
"new" mutant has not already been identified and assigned a different
The standard system of nomenclature for Arabidopsis should be
A. Mutant gene symbols should have 3 letters (underlined or italics)
in lower case.
B. The wild-type allele should have these letters (underlined or
italics) in CAPS.
C. Different genes with the same symbol are
distinguished by different numbers (for example: emb25 and emb26).
D. Different alleles of the same gene are distinguished with a number
following a hyphen (for example: emb20-1 and emb20-2).
E. When only a single allele is known, the hyphen (-1) is not needed
(thus: emb33 equals emb33-1 if only a single allele is known).
F. When only a single gene is given a particular symbol, the number
is not needed (thus: lec equals lec1)
G. The same nomenclature applies to both dominant and recessive
H. Cloned wild-type genes should be in CAPS (underlined or italics)
and the protein products of these genes should be in CAPS only.
I. When picking a mutant gene symbol, avoid the use of symbols that
might have another meaning (for example, CHS currently refers to both
the wild-type allele of a chilling sensitive mutant (chs), and the
cloned chalcone synthase gene).
A large number of form and color mutants obtained from the Kranz
collection are currently available through the Nottingham stock
center. These mutants have names that do not correspond to the
nomenclature described above. The best approach with this collection
may be to select new symbols for mutants that have been further
characterized in preparation for publication.
In Order to Minimize Duplication of Gene Symbols:
The attached list of mutant gene symbols will be added immediately to
AIMS, AAtDB, and stock center catalogs, and will be periodically
updated. Check this list before you choose a new gene symbol.
Then contact the current curator of gene symbols (David Meinke: phone
405-744-6549; FAX 405-744-7673; email btnydwm at osucc.bitnet) to reserve
your new symbol prior to publication and ensure that someone else was
not also planning to use the same symbol.
This protocol must be followed in order to minimize problems in the
Symbols can be reserved without details on mutant phenotype if there
is concern about providing too much information prior to publication.
Editors of journals will be informed of this policy to minimize the
chances of publishing a paper with a duplicate symbol.
Please report any mistakes or changes to the attached list to the curator as
soon as possible.
Comments regarding this new system are also welcome. Contact David
Meinke, Department of Botany, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,
OK 74078, USA.
Overview of Mutant Gene Symbols for Arabidopsis thaliana
This List Excludes Gene Symbols for Cloned Sequences
(*) = Change Suggested; (**) = No Longer Used
Updated December 15, 1992; David W. Meinke
Symbol Full Descriptive Name for Gene Symbol Reference Laboratory
aba ABA deficient Koornneef
abi ABA insensitive Koornneef
aca azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistant Lehle and Khan
acd accelerated cell death Ausubel; Dangl
acf suppressor of fca Dean
act chloroplast glycerol-3-phosphate Kunst and Somerville
adg ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase deficient Caspar
adh Alcohol dehydrogenase deficient Jacobs
ag agamous (floral defective) Koornneef
agr agravitropic Maher
ain ethylene insensitive Van der Straeten
alb albina (white embryo and seedling) Van der Veen; Relichova
ali alien (abnormal trichomes) Jurgens
amt a-methyl tryptophan resistant (see mtr) Town
an angustifolia (narrow leaf) Redei
ap apetala (floral defective) Koornneef
apt adenine phosphoribosyl transferase Moffatt and Somerville
ara arabinose sensitive Cobbett
arc accumulation and replication of Pyke and Leech
as asymmetric leaves Redei
aux auxin-resistant Maher
axr auxin-resistant Estelle
bel bell-shaped ovules, female sterile Pruitt and Gasser
bic bacterial induced chlorosis Dangl
bio biotin auxotroph Meinke
blu blue light response defective Hangarter
bp brevipedicellus (downward siliques) Koornneef
ca caespitosa (short stems; bushy plants) McKelvie; Redei
cad cadmium sensitive Cobbett
cal cauliflower (defective inflorescence) Bowman and Meyerowitz
cdo chardonnay (abnormal trichomes) Jurgens
cer eceriferum (shiny stems; reduced wax) Dellaert; Koornneef
ch chlorina (yellow green) Redei; Relichova
cha chablis (abnormal trichomes) Jurgens
chl chlorate-resistant Feenstra; Crawford
chm chloroplast mutator Redei
chm* chlorominuta (light green) Relichova
chp chlorophyll mutant Koornneef
chs chilling sensititve Hugly and Somerville
ckr cytokinin resistant Howell
clv clavata (extra carpels) McKelvie; Koornneef
cn convoluta (leaf shape; twisted stem) Relichova
cnx chlorate resistant (NR cofactor) Braaksma and Feenstra
co late flowering (replaces fg) Redei
cob cobra (root) Benfey
cop constitutive photomorphogenic Deng
(light response in dark)
cp compacta (semi dwarf) Koornneef
cp* cupuliformis (leaf shape) Relichova
crc crabs claw (floral defective) Smyth
crk crooked (abnormal trichomes) Jurgens
crl curly (defective cotyledons and leaves) Medford
csi cesium resistant Sussman
csr acetolactate synthetase; Haughn and Somerville
ctr constitutive triple response Ecker
dct dicarboxylate transport defective Somerville and Ogren
det de-etiolated (light response in dark) Chory
dip disrupted (defective leaves, meristem) Medford
dis distorted trichomes Feenstra
dn dentata (broad leaves, late flowering) Relichova
doc dark over-expression of cab Chory
dwf dwarf Koornneef; Feldmann
dwf auxin-resistant dwarf Mizra; Olsen
ein ethylene insensitive Ecker
eir ethylene insensitive root Ecker
ela enhanced linolenate accumulation Browse and Somerville
elf early flowering Meeks-Wagner
emb embryo-defective; includes lethals, Meinke
defectives, and pigment mutants
emf embryonic flower Sung
er erecta (short, upright stems) Redei
esd early flowering in short days Coupland
eto ethylene overproducer Ecker
etr ethylene-insensitive Bleeker
ett ettin (floral defective) Roe and Zambryski
fab fatty acid biosynthesis defective James and Dooner
fad fatty acid desaturase deficient Somerville
fae fatty acid elongation defective Kunst; Browse/Somerville
fas fasciated (like clavata) Furner
fb** (now gi) Koornneef
fca late flowering Koornneef
fd late flowering Koornneef
fdh fiddlehead (organ fusion) Lolle and Sussex
fdi factor differentiation instability Vizir
fe late flowering Koornneef
fey forever young (altered shoot apex) Medford
fg** (now co) Koornneef
fha late flowering Koornneef
fk fackel (embryo defective) Jurgens
fl folliculiformis (like clavata)